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VOL. 66 
JULY, 1952 to APRIL, 1953 



Curator of the Department of MoUusks and Marine Invertebrates, 
Academy of Natural Sciences 


Professor of Zoology, University of Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Names of new genera and species in italics. 

Africa 70 

American Malacological Union 67 

Anuiicola cryhetes Leonard 38 

Atlantic coast 1, 7, 17, 69, 73, 76, 77, 109, 125, 142 

Branham Shell Museum 104 

Burry, L. A 105 

California, inland 47 

marine 109 

Canada 80 

Carychium exiguum 5 

Clapp, William F 31 

Congeria leucopheata 125 

Cuba 95 

Dates of Kobelt's " Illustriertes Conchylienbuch " 59 

Dates of The Nautilus 31 

Dates of Thiele's "Handbuch" 33 

Delaware 50 

East Indies 95 

Fastigiella carinata 77, 142 

Finlay, Harold John 30 

Florida, inland 3, 51, 71 

marine 1, 73, 76 

Fossil snail eggs 33 

Georgia 50 

Gyraiilus enaulus Leonard 43 

Holospira yueatanensis 69, pi. 6 

Illinois 130 

Importing live mollusks 26, 104 

Indians and freshwater mussels 130 

Iowa 80 

Japan 13 

Kansas 37, 80 

Kentucky 46 

Laevinesta Pilsbry & McGinty, sg. of Nesta 3 

Lamarck's types of uniones 63, 90 

Littoridina (Littoridinopes) tenuipes 50 

Littoridinops Pilsbry, sg. Littoridina 51 

Lymnaea diminuta, L. macella, L. parexilis, 

L. turritella Leonard 39-41 

Maryland 50, 114 

Mesanella Clench & Turner (Camaenidae) 32 

iv • THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Michigan 5, 46 

Monadenia setosa Talmadge 47 

Montana 80 

Murex bicolor 76 

Mutelidae 63, 90 

Mya arenaria 7 

Naninia steursi (Xesta cincta auct.) 95 

Nebraska 80 

Nesta atlantica 1 

Nesta, sg. Laevinesta Pilsbry & McGinty 1 

Nevada ". ' 15, 70 

New Jersey 50, 54 

New York 31, 46, 50, 99, 125 

North Carolina 46, 69, 78, 114, 143 

North Dakota 80 

Octopus hummelincki 73 

Ohio 26, 45 

Pacific coast 19 

Palearctic 13, 26, 31 

Pallifera varia Hubricht 78 

Pecten (Plagioctenium) gihhus carolinensis Grau 17, 69 

P. (P.) gibhus portusregii Grau 69 

Pennsylvania 128 

Philippines 32 

Philomycus venustus, P. virginicus Hubricht 79, 80 

Planorbarius corneus ruber 31 

Pleurohranchus (Oscanius) amarillins Mattox 110 

Pomacea (Effusa) oligista Pilsbry & Olsson 98 

Pomacea paludosa, ciliary feeding 3 

Promenetus hlancoensis Leonard 42 

Publications received 35, 72, 105, 143 

Rafinesque 's slugs 46 

Robertson, Imogene Strickler 139 

Schizothaerus 19 

Siberia 13 

South America 98 

South Carolina 114 

South Dakota 80 

Sphaeriidae 97 

Tennessee 46, 78 

Texas 32, 69 

Unionidae 63, 90 

Utah 97 

Ventridens 99 

Virginia 10, 60, 78, 114 

West Virginia 78 

Xesta cincta 95 


Abbott, R. Tucker 104 

Aekermann, D. W. J 70 

Alexander, Robert C 54 

Baker, H. B 31, 104 

Branham, Mrs. Hugh 105 

Burch, John Bavard 60 

Clench, W. J. f 31, 33 

Clench & R. D. Turner 32 

Eyerdam, Walter J 13 

Finueane, John H. (Swan &) 19 

Freas, Dorothy D 31 

Grau, Gilbert 17, 69 

Harry, Harold W 5 

Heilman, Robert A. & Gordon K. McMillan 128 

Herrington, H. B. & E. J. Roscoe 97 

Hubricht, Leslie 10, 33, 46, 78, 114, 143 

Ingram, "William Marcus 26 

Jacobson, Morris K 15, 70, 99, 125 

Johnson, Bert M 3 

Johnson, Richard 1 63, 90 

Kline, George F 142 

Leonard, A. Bvron 37 

McGinty, Thomas L. (Pilsbry &) 1 

McMillan, Gordon K. (Heilman &) 128 

Matteson, Max R 130 

Mattox, N. T 109 

Moore, Merrill 102 

Olsson, Axel A. (Pilsbrv &) 98 

Orchard, CD 32 

Pilsbry, H. A 50, 69, 77, 142 

Pilsbry & Thomas L. McGinty 1 

Pilsbry & Axel A. Olsson 98 

Rehder, H. A 30, 59, 95 

Roscoe, E. J. (Herrington &) 97 

Russell, Henry D 7 

Schalie, Henry van der 80 

Swan, Emery F. & John H. Finueane 19 

Talmadge, Robert R 47 

Teare, Margaret M 76, 139 

Teskev, Margaret C 67, 139 

Turner, R. D. (Clench &) 32 

Voss, Gilbert L 73 

Young, Frank N 71 


The Nautilus 

Vol. 66 JULY, 1952 No. 1 



In the course of dredging off Palm Beach, Florida, in Mr. 
Arthur R. Thompson's yacht Triton, the junior author with his 
brother, Paul L. McGinty, obtained a single living specimen of 
a mollusk quite new to us. The oval body was about an inch 
long, at least three times as large as the shell, and showed no 
shell externally. It was of a j^ellow color, and was brought up 
seated on a yellow sponge taken in 30 fathoms on a rocky reef, 
at Triton station 536. This animal was found to contain, wholly 
enclosed in the mantle, a shell shaped like that of the genus 
Nesta H. Adams, but smoother. This shell was described in 
Johnsonia II, p. 97, fig. 43, as Nesta atlantica Farfante. 

The completely enclosed shell appears smooth to the eye, but 
under a lens a sculpture of close-set, very fine, rather indistinct 
radiating riblets is seen. There is no decussation, but some 
irregularly spaced weak lines of growth can be made out. 
Length 8 to 9.5 mm. A full description was given by Sra. 

At the time when we examined the preserved animal it had 
contracted to a length of about 15 mm., width 10 mm., and the 
color had changed to purplish black above, the foot a dull dusky 
reddish color. The foot tapers to a blunt end and projects 
a short distance behind the mantle, which appears smooth. 
Anteriorly the mantle is notched in the middle, thickened and 
lobed or digitated at the sides as in fig. IC, but elsewhere is thin 
at the edge. It has no orifice over the shell, which could be 
felt through the mantle in the fresh animal. There is a short 
stout rostrum, a tentacle on each side of its base. No eyes were 
seen. Behind this tentacle there seems to be a slender process 


[Vol. 66 (1) 

perhaps a penis, and a rather large rounded epipodial lobe 
(fig-. IB). As the animal had been somewhat mutilated by the 
removal of the shell these notes will be subject to expansion and 
perhaps correction when other specimens are found. 

The radula (fig. ID) has numerous rows of 17 teeth each. 
Their arrangement may be expressed by a formula, thus: 
1.3.414.3.1 (the central, lateral and marginal groups being here 
separated by periods).^ The central field, occupying about one- 
fifth of the total width of the radula, has nearly uniform small 
teeth. The unpaired central tooth has a squarish basal plate a 

Fig. 1. Nesta atlantica. A, outlines of shell; B, head; C, anterior 
edge of mantle ; d, half row of teeth. 

little longer than wide, with a long middle cusp and two small 
side cusps, the outer one oblique. The four paired teeth of the 
central field on each side are similar to the central tooth but 
slightly asymmetric. Often one or two of the small cusps may 
be absent. 

The lateral fields of the radula have three teeth. The very 
large inner lateral has an irregular elongate form with a large 
hooked cusp arising close to, but not quite at, its inner end 
(which does not show in the figure). The second lateral is 
small, of irregular shape, without cusp. It is usually partly 
concealed by the adjacent laterals. The third or outer lateral 

1 For notes on terminology of rhipidoglossate radulae see Baker, H. B., 
1923, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 118. The three teeth here termed 
"laterals" appear to represent the A-central to the DE plates of Baker. 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 3 

tooth is as large as the inner lateral, squarish, with a short 
nodule (scarcely to be called a cusp) at the inner anterior 

There is a single marginal tooth. Its long, slender, arcuate 
cusp, with delicately fringed end, arises from near the outer 
end of an opaque oblong basal plate. The slender shaft of the 
cusp has a rounded basal end and is apparently moveable on 
its basal plate. In the figure it is shown raised, but in resting 
position the feathered end lies over the inner lateral tooth. 

The extraordinary feature of this radula is that the margi- 
nals, which are usually very numerous in rhipidoglossate radu- 
lae, are reduced to a single tooth on each side. The teeth of 
the central field have some resemblance to the so-called **innere 
Zwischenplatten " of Clypidina noteta (L.) as figured by Thiele, 
but the lateral and marginal teeth are very different. Unlike 
Emarginulinae, the centrals of Nesta atlantica are bilaterally 
sjTnmetrical. In other genera having 414 teeth in the central 
field, the following lateral teeth are quite unlike those of N. 

The shell of N. Candida H. Adams, the type species of Nesta, 
was apparently external, as its sculpture was thus described: 
lirulis elevatis tenuissimis concentrice et radiantihus concinne 
decussata, with the sulcus distinctly striate transversely and the 
margin delicately crenulate throughout. It is not likely that 
a shell so sculptured would be internal. "We think that the 
Atlantic species will prove to be generically distinct from Nesta 
when that becomes more fully known, but at present we pro- 
vide for it a subgenus Laevinesta, characterized by the wholly 
internal shell without concentric sculpture or marginal crenu- 
lation, and with the soft parts and radula as described above. 


By beet M. JOHNSON 
Mich. State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Michigan 

The use of the foot in gastropods for purposes other than loco- 
motion is rarely encountered. In observing the so-called "mys- 
tery" snail, Pomacea (Ampullaria) paludosa (Say) in my 

4 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

aquarium of Scalares, the unique habit of ciliary feeding by 
means of the foot was noted on occasions when the snails were 
underfed. Shortly after sifting one-eighth of a teaspoon of 
pulverized dried crabmeat, shrimp and mosquito larvae on the 
surface of the water, these large snails crawled slowly up the glass 
wall, siphons greatly extended. Upon reaching the surface, the 
snails formed funnels with the anterior half of their prodigious 
feet. The anterior one-fourth of the foot was utilized to shape 
the cup and the succeeding one-fourth to form the tube. The 
remaining portion of the foot was flattened against the glass of 
the aquarium (fig. 1), 

Fig. 1. C?iliary feeding of Pomacea paludosa. 

The cilia of the ventral surface of the foot beat in such a 
rhythmical fashion so as to create a small current within the 
temporary funnel, sucking the particulate fishfood into the tube. 
The particles moved straight down the sides of the funnel, which 
indicates the direction of the beat of the cilia. The food par- 
ticles traveled down the temporary pedal tube to the flattened 
region of the foot where they could be seen at the posterior 
opening of the funnel which was not completely constricted. 

After completely filling the tube, each snail pushed its eager 
mouth over the rim of the funnel which slowly opened, revealing 
the contents. The food, adhering in a stringy mass by pedal 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 5 

secretions, was then pulled into the mouth by the radula. The 
funnel-forming process was repeated as long as particulate food 
could be secured from the surface of the water. 

Some snails assumed the funnel-shaping position away from 
the glass sides of the aquarium, supporting themselves by the 
extreme posterior portion of the foot on aquatic vegetation. 
The flattened portion of the foot was then free in the open 
water. The particulate food did not escape through the pos- 
terior orifice of the temporary funnel even in this position. 
Upon carefully examining the ventral surface of the foot and 
the movement of particles of debris in the water about it, no 
evidence of ciliary action in the flattened posterior regions was 
observed, indicating remarkable regional control and coordina- 
tion of the pedal cilia. 

Normally, Poniacea paludosa (Say) feeds like most aquatic 
snails, pushing the mouthparts along with palpal explorations 
until food is encountered and rasped into the mouth by the 
radula. Cook (1949) described a somewhat comparable ciliary 
feeding mechanism in Viviparus viviparus, a distantly related 


Cook, P. M. 1949. A ciliary feeding mechanism in Viviparus 
viviparus. Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 27 (6) : 265-271. 

Innes, W. T. 1951. Snails and other scavengers. The Aquari- 
um, 20 (8) : 198. 



This study concerns the general biology of Carychium exiguum 
in Lower Michigan. Special emphasis is placed on its mor- 
phology. Live specimens were collected from more than sixty 
localities in the state. Problems relating to collecting, culturing 

1 Abstract of thesis. 

6 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

the snails in the laboratory and preserving material for morpho- 
logical studies, as well as special techniques for studying 
Carychium are discussed. Carychium exiguum was found to 
have a short phenological period in July. Immature specimens 
were present in nature in quantities greater than ten per cent 
only until November. Darkness, constant high moisture and 
decaying vegetation appear to be the essential factors in their 
environment. Carychium occurs as isolated colonies in micro- 
habitats which were found chiefly in Thuja forests, open grassy 
areas and some hardwood forests. 

From a study of variation of the shell it was concluded that 
criteria previously used for distinguishing nominal species in 
this area are not sufficient for recognizing more than one natural 
species. No anatomical differentiation of species was found. 
Changes in the shell during growth are recorded. Carychium, 
unlike other EUobiacea studied, showed no evidence of heteros- 
trophy. Resorption of the internal partitions of the shell and 
perfection of the lamellae proceed with growth. 

In the animal there is a fusion of the whorls of the visceral 
mass which corresponds to the amount of resorption of the shell 
partitions. This resorption process corresponds to the insertion 
of the columellar retractor muscle, the upper extent of the 
pulmonary cavity and, together with certain innate character- 
istics of the spire itself, helps delimit the apical portion of the 
spire as a unit, forming the upper visceral complex. That por- 
tion of the hemocoel connecting the upper visceral complex and 
the cephalopedal mass was found to be divided further into two 
longitudinal portions by the encroachment of the shell lamellae 
on the diaphragm. 

In general, a simplification of structure was observed in the 
internal anatomy. This trend was especially noticeable in the 
reduction of branching of the ovotestis, liver and salivary 
glands. Musculature is present in the digestive tract only in 
the region of the stomach and buccal mass. In the circulatory 
system the heart is similar to that of other pulmonates, but in 
the arterial system only the rudiments of the major arteries 
were present. As the pulmonary vein lacks lateral branches, 
the pulmonary cavity is without a vascular network. There is 
a spacious marginal mantle sinus which seems to be the chief 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 7 

site for external respiration. The left pallial vein conveys blood 
directly from that sinus to the pulmonary vein, joining it just 
before the latter empties into the auricle. The kidney is a 
simple sac lacking internal folds. No ureter is present. 

The nervous system is more diffuse than in most other 
Pulmonata. There are two accessory cerebral ganglia which are 
not comparable to the tripartite cerebral ganglia of either 
Helix or Lymnaea. Chiastoneury is manifest in the visceral 
nerve ring, which contained pleural but not parietal ganglia. 
The sensory epithelia at the tip of the tentacles and margin of 
the labial palps were identical in structure. The latter may be 
homologous with the tentacular pads of the EUobiidae or 
sensory areas in other Basommatophora. 

Two sexual types were found, both containing sperm and 
ova in their gonad. The reproductive system of the aphallate 
type is characterized by a unifollicular gonad, the absence of 
a seminal vesicle, vas deferens and penis. The phallate speci- 
mens have a pleurifollicular gonad, a seminal vesicle, vas de- 
ferens and penis. A glandular organ was found which corre- 
sponds to the mantle organ Plate first described in Pythia. It 
contained a tube in phallate specimens which is lacking in the 
aphallate ones. A muscular and glandular modification of the 
parietal isthmian hemocoel in the phallate specimens is also 
lacking in the aphallate ones. The ratio of the two sexual types 
varies in different colonies. 

This thesis was accepted in the fall of 1951 by the Graduate 
School of the University of Michigan, in partial fulfillment of 
the doctoral degree requirements. Microfilm of the thesis should 
be obtainable in the spring of 1952. 


By henry D. EUSSELL 

From conversations with the shellfish officer and with those 
who have derived a substantial portion of their livelihood from 
the clamming industry of Duxbury Bay, Massachusetts, in the 
past, there evidently have been plentiful sets of the soft- 
shelled clam Mya arenaria here for the past several years. These 



[Vol. 66 (1) 

sets, however, persisted for only a few months and died without 
spawning. Thus they were not a contributory factor in re- 
building a clam population in the bay. 

There was no available recorded information concerning the 
clam sets of the past few years; only the lack of My a arenaria 
on the once plentifully producing flats provided mute evidence 
that they had not persisted. The purpose of this paper, there- 
fore, is to place on record with a few environmental notes a 
brief history to the date of writing of the 1950 clam set. This 
history extends over a period of approximately five months from 
August 11, 1950 to January 18, 1951. 

The Annual Duxbury Town Report for 1949 shows that in 
that year 129 bushels of seed clams were planted in the bay and 
these according to the shellfish officer were scattered between 
the Yacht Club and Standish Shore. The present clam set ac- 
cording to the latter source extends from the south side of 
Powder Point to Standish Shore. 


K 10 

£ 5 . 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 II 12 13 

Length in mm. 

Fig. 1. Length groups of sample expressed in whole mm. Figures above 
points are actual numbers of individuals in each group. 

The author located young clams attached by a byssal thread 
to the mooring lines, wharf pilings, and the under carriage of 
floats near the Yacht Club on August 11. These specimens 
were numerous and ranged in size from 1.6 to 6.5 mm. in length. 
On August 29 others were located attached to sand and Ulva 
sp. at low tide near South Duxburj-. This location was directly 
westward of Little Mussel Bed, ]\Iussel Bed and Round Flats. 

Both of these collections were made within the area planted 
with seed clams during 1949. The environmental conditions 
were not investigated on August 11, but the following data 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 9 

were recorded on August 29 : water, pH-7.5 ; temperature, 
24.0°C.; dissolved oxygen in parts per million, 9.41; current 
velocity, 1 foot per 7.5 seconds ; salinity, 27.2 parts per mille. 

No further collections were made until January 18, 1951, 
The site of this collection was at about the half tide mark at the 
William F. Clapp Laboratory, approximately 250 yards south 
of the Yacht Club. Here 219 seed clams were found in the 
upper 2 inches of the sand of a random square foot sample. 
These clams ranged in size from 3.4 to 13.5 mm. in length, with 
an average of 8.34 mm. In general the smaller specimens were 
found nearer the surface and all were attached to sand grains 
by the byssus. Some individuals as large as 12.5 mm. were seen 
attached to clumps of mussels, Mytilus edulis, lying on the sur- 
face of the sand near the square foot sample under investiga- 
tion. The accompanying graph (fig 1) indicates the percentages 
of the various length groups of the sample expressed in whole 
millimeters, while the numbers at the various points on the face 
of the graph show the actual numbers of each length group. 

The average length of those clams found in August was 4.0 
mm. while that of the January sample was 8.3 mm., an increase 
of 4.3 mm. This increase indicates that this clam set had more 
than doubled its average length in the previous five month pe- 
riod, or that it had increased at a rate of 0.86 mm. per month. 
This appears to be a rather slower rate than usual. Belding, 
1930,^ states that the legal size (2 inches or 50 mm.) for a clam 
is reached in about 2 years in these waters. This is an average 
growth rate of about 2 mm. per month. This rate depends upon 
the abundance of food and such environmental factors as water 
temperature and currents. 

The spawning period for Mya arenaria is considered to be 
from June 1 to August 31 (Belding, 1930). If this is the case, 
then the growth rate of this Duxbury set for the first 2i/2 months, 
June 1-August 11, was approximately 2 mm. per month. Its 
rate for the next five months was somewhat slowed down to 
average 0.86 mm. per month. However, for the whole growing 
period of the set, June 1 to January 18, the growth rate was 
approximately 1.5 mm. per month. 

Mya arenaria grows at a slower rate during the winter 
months, November to April, than during the more active period, 

10 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

May to November. The clams investigated in January were 
found in rather coarse sand and will probably show little in- 
crease in length, if they survive, until the next growing season. 
This reasoning is based upon the following statements from 
Belding (1930):^ "It is interesting to compare the winter 
growth in sand and on mud flats, as observed at Plymouth 
harbor. The growth on Wind Flat (mud) from October to 
June was 12.72 millimeters or nearly one-half inch, while the 
growth of similar clams on White Flat (sand) during the same 
period was 4.92 millimeters or about one-fifth of an inch." 

The seed clams collected in January appeared healthy and on 
tactile stimulation retracted the foot and siphons actively. 




This paper is the third installment on the land snails of Pitt- 
sylvania County, Virginia. The first, on the Polygyridae, was 
published in The Nautilus, vol. 64, no. 1, July, 1950. The 
second, on the slugs, was published in vol. 65, no. 1, July, 1951. 
The present paper treats all of the remaining families except 
the Zonitidae. The Zonitidae, with approximately twenty spe- 
cies, will be treated later as the species become better under- 


Cepaea nemoralis (Linn.). Abundant on the northwest end 
of the block on the southeast side of South Main Street, between 
Paxton and Stokes Streets. Ignoring such minor variations as 
coalesced or imperfectly developed bands the 106 specimens 
collected may be sorted as follows: Pink 00000, 16; Yellow 
00000, 1 ; Yellow 00300, 20 ; Yellow 00345, 7 ; Yellow 12345, 62. 

1 Belding, D. L. The soft-shelled clam fishery of Massachusetts. Dept. 
of Conservation of Mass., Marine Fisheries Series, No. 1, 1930. 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 11 


Haplotrema concavum (Say). Common over the county but 
most numerous and larg:er on the bluffs along the Dan and 
Roanoke Rivers. 


Anguispira aliernata (Say). Common on the bluff along the 
Roanoke River. 

Anguispira alternata form angulata Pilsbry. Found on the 
bluff along the Dan River but not common. 

Anguispira fergusoni (Bland). Found in the floodplain of 
the Dan River in the extreme southeastern corner of the county. 
This coastal plain species wanders up the larger river valleys 
well into the Piedmont where it became smaller and high spired, 
approaching A. clarki. A. fergusoni is found in company with 
A. alternata form angulata along the lower Roanoke River and 
there is no intergradation. I believe that A. alternata is a 
complex of at least five species, fergusoni, knoxensis, crassa, and 
mordax being distinct, as they all have been found associated 
with A. alternata. 

Discus patulus (Desh.). Common on the bluff along the 
Roanoke River from Smith Mtn. Gorge to Altavista. Many of 
the specimens found are albinos. 

Helicodiscus parallelus (Say). Generally distributed over the 
county but not very common. 

Punctum minutissimum (Lea). Known only from two speci- 
mens collected in the floodplain of the Dan River. 

Punctum hlandianum Pilsbry. Abundant in ravines and 
upland woods over the county. The second most abundant 

Punctum vitreum H. B. Baker. Known only from four speci- 
mens collected on the bluff along the Roanoke River. 

Punctum smithi Morrison. Generally distributed over the 
county. The most abundant species. 

Punctum lamellatum Hubricht. Known only from the bluff 
along the Roanoke River, 3 miles northwest of Brights; and a 
ravine, just west of Schoolfield. 

12 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 


Succinea avara (Say). Known only from a few specimens 
found at scattered localities over the county. 


Strohilops labyrinthica (Say). Generally distributed but not 

Strohilops aenea Pilshry. Generally distributed but not 


Gastrocopta armifera (Say). Found on pieces of broken con- 
crete on a vacant lot in Danville. It is probably introduced. 

Gastrocopta contracta (Say). Found only in Danville. 

Gastrocopta pentodon (Say). Known only from one locality, 
under logs along Riverside Drive, Danville. 

Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. Adams). Known only from 
under logs in a swamp along Riverside Drive, Danville. 

Gastrocopta procera (Gould). Found under pieces of broken 
concrete in Danville. It is probably introduced. 

Pupoides albilahris (C. B. Adams). Found under pieces of 
broken concrete in Danville. Undoubtedly introduced. 

Vertigo milium (Gould). Known only from under logs in a 
swamp along Riverside Drive, Danville. 

Vertigo ovata (Say). Found associated with V. milium. 

Vertigo oscariana Sterki. Found only at two localities: On 
the north side of White Oak Mtn., 2 miles north of Spring 
Garden ; and oak woods, Schoolfield. 

Columella edentula (Drap.). Found on the north side of 
White Oak Mtn., 2 miles north of Spring Garden; and on the 
bluff along the Roanoke River, opposite Altavista. 


Vallonia pulchella form excentrica Sterki. Found in vacant 
lots in Danville. Probably introduced. 

Jul}^ 1952] THE NAUTILUS 13 


Cionella lubrica morseana Doherty. Generally distributed 
and common. Unlike most small snails this species is not active 
during the winter. It is found under the leaves, rather than 
among them. 


Carychiiim exiguum (Say). Generally distributed in wet 
places. Not as common as the next species. 

Carychium exile H. C. Lea. Generally distributed and com- 
mon . 

Carychium nannodes Clapp. Found on the bluff along the 
Roanoke River as far east as Staunton River State Park. 

Carychium costatum Hubricht. Known from three speci- 
mens collected on the bluff along the Roanoke River, 3 miles 
northwest of Brights. 



In September 1930 while visiting Tsuruga, Japan, I col- 
lected some of the beautiful large land snails in the genera 
Euhadra and Ganesella which live in leaf mould near the sea- 
shore. Some of the varieties in these two genera bear a striking 
resemblance to some of our forms of Monadenia. Dr. Cockerell 
had collected in the same locality around Tsuruga a few years 
before. Of the recently described varieties, I found several 
Euhadra sandai var. okanoi Pilsbry and Cockerell and Euhadra 
peliomphala var. maculata Pilsbry. This latter variety is not 
reported in Pilsbry 's report on the Japanese Euhadra in "Re- 
view of Japanese Land Mollusks, ' ' II. All the land shells that I 
collected around Tsuruga were submitted to Dr. Pilsbry for 
identification, but none proved to be new on account of the 
thorough collecting made previously by Dr. Cockerell and his 
Japanese assistant Okanoi. 

14 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

During a few days stop at Vladivostok in September 1928 
before traveling to Manchuria, I made a couple of trips to the 
biological station which was situated on a small isthmus on one 
end of the Golden Horn. This bay upon which the rock bound 
city of Vladivostok is situated is an arm of the Gulf of Peter 
the Great. In an undisturbed spot in deep leaf mould under 
bushes, I found four live specimens of Cockerell's gigantic race 
of Eulota maackii Gerstfelt which he named var. optima Cock- 
erell. His original find in 1923 was made at Kongaus a few 
miles east of Vladivostok. Measurements of the three adult 
specimens in my collection are the same as those of Cockerell 
which measure 33.5 to 34.5 mm. The fourth specimen not quite 
mature is about 5 mm. less in maximum diameter, but may not 
have reached the maximum size of the others when mature. 

Two years later when I was again in Vladivostok on my way 
to Germany after leaving the Whitney South Sea Expedition in 
Papua, I started on a hike over to the biological station, but 
during these two years a great change had come over all of the 
vast Soviet empire through Stalin's overall rapid development 
of the first five year plan. Vladivostok had already taken on 
a new look as was the ease in nearly every city in U.S.S.R. The 
Golden Horn was full of ships and new fortifications were being 
built. The isthmus where the biological station stood was 
bristling with batteries and was a new naval base. No civilians 
could come near the spot where I had found the giant race of 
^ulota maackii. 

At the university of Tomsk in western Siberia I received 
from the young biologist Bodo Johannsen, son of the well known 
ornithologist Prof. Hermann Johannsen, two specimens of 
Eulota maackii from near the type locality where R. Maack 
collected this species in the middle of the last century. These 
gift specimens were collected by Prof. Korzhinsky in 1891 in a 
deciduous forest at the lower falls of the Kura River in the 
Amur province. They are less than half the size of Cockerell's 
giant race, collected in 1923. 

The typical Eulota maackii is found over a wide area from 
the Amur River and south for over 400 miles. The giant race 
living in the vicinity of Vladivostok on the south end of the area 
probably extends into nearby north Korea and eastern Man- 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 15 

ehuria, both countries being only about fifty miles from Vladivo- 
stok. About 150 miles north of this city, in the Turi Rog or 
Hanka Lake, lives the largest freshwater mussel in the world. 
It is Anodonta herculea. I have seen one that was fully 12 
inches long. That corner of East Siberia and Manchuria sup- 
ports and exceedingly interesting endemic or relict flora and 

By morris K. JACOBSON 

On August 21, 1947 I collected a large series of aquatic shells 
on the western shore of Pyramid Lake, the exact spot, as it 
later developed in the course of a short correspondence, where 
the Bailys made their collection. The day was blustery and 
squally and a brisk wind blowing from the farther shore de- 
posited huge windrows of dead shells all along the area I was 
visiting. Hence, it was the work of a moment to secure a large 
collection. On the basis of the material thus obtained I feel 
it might be pertinent to add a few comments to the excellent 
paper on this fauna prepared by Joshua L. and Ruth Ingersoll 
Baily (Nautilus, 65: 46-53, 85-93, PL 4). 

Dr. and Mrs. Baily report the following species from Pyramid 
Lake : Pyrgulopsis nevadensis Stearns, P. nevadensis paiutica 
Baily & Baily, Parapholyx effusa nevadensis Henderson (or P. 
effusa solida Dall), Helisoma tenue Dunker, Physa lordi utah- 
ensis Clench, P. lordi zomos Baily & Baily. To this list I would 
add Carinifex newherryi Lea, Gyraulus similaris F. C. Baker 
and Anodonta species (A. nuttalliana Lea?). I found Carinifex 
not at all uncommon, approximately in the same numbers as 
Helisoma tenue. Many specimens are more than one-half inch 
in diameter and in beautiful condition. Hence I must report 
that my experience differs decidedly from that of the Bailys 
(Nautilus, 63: 76). Of the Gyraulus I found 18 individuals by 
actual count, but so far have subjected only about two-thirds of 
the material to minute examination. The Anodonta appears 
only in the form of weathered, flaking fragments, none showing 
even a vestige of the hinge area. 

16 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

In connection with the subspecies paiutica of Pyrgulopsis 
nevadensis — the taxonomic value of which the authors them- 
selves say "is somewhat problematical" — it might be of value 
to cite a paper by A. E. Boycott on "The Inheritance of Orna- 
mentation in var. aculeata of Hydrohia jenksini Smith" (1929, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., 18: 230 ff.), a not distantly related 
species. The following quotations are of particular applicability 
to the present case : * ' The keel and spines of the parents do not 
under these [experimental] conditions reappear in the young"; 
"Carinated young transferred to good conditions produced only 
smooth progeny" (p. 232) ; "These results show that aculeation 
is not in the ordinary sense a heritable character. They con- 
firm those of Robson (1926, Brit. Jour. Exp. Biol., Ill: 149) 
who obtained nothing but smooth young from carinated par- 
ents." Boycott believes that transference to "bad" conditions 
seems to bring about carination. This coincides well with the 
fact that carinated Pyrgulopsis appear in tremendous excess 
over the smooth forms in Pyramid Lake, a body of water that 
presented the characteristics, as evaporation induced increasing 
salinity, of progressively worsening conditions from the point 
of view of fresh water mollusks. At any rate, if the results 
obtained by Boycott and Robson with Hydrohia jenksini can 
be repeated with Pyrgulopsis nevadensis — a very likely con- 
jecture — then it would appear that the nomenclatorial validity of 
paiutica, except as a simple variational form, is further weak- 

Similarly I must with reluctance express some doubt as to 
the validity of Physa lordi zomos. Judging by the well executed 
figures on page 91 (Naut., 65), which present the typical and 
the two "subspecies" of P. lordi, I find that I can easily pro- 
duce specimens from among the Pyramid Lake physas that 
conform to each of these forms. Here again we seem to be 
dealing with simple variational forms which intergrade so well 
that many specimens can be assigned only with difficulty. What 
the Bailys write about the supposed subspecies of Parapholyx 
effusa (op. cit., p. 86), applies very well to those Physa lordi: 
"In a long series of these shells from Pyramid Lake the ob- 
servable variation appears to efface the supposed differences 
among the forms mentioned above." One would judge that 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 17 

zomos had better remained unnamed where many students had 
left it. 


By gilbert GRAU 

Several years ago a number of specimens of Pecten gihbus 
were received from Mr. R. C. Spencer, who had collected them 
2 miles off Port Royal, South Carolina. It was immediately 
apparent that they differed considerably from typical gihhus 
but it was felt advisable to secure more examples of the form 
before attempting to arrive at any conclusion regarding its 
status. As the result of subsequent collecting by Mr. Spencer 
in the same area more than 60 specimens have been received, 
ranging in height from 7 to 33 mm. 

For comparative study the author used a series of 104 speci- 
mens of P. gihhus in his collection, ranging from 10 to 51 mm. 
in height and collected at various localities on the east and west 
coasts of Florida, at Campeche, Yucatan, and at Gambia, west 
Africa. Thorough comparison of this series with the South 
Carolina series proved the latter to be quite distinct and readily 
separable from the typical. 

A somewhat similar fossil species, P. (Plagioctenium) com- 
parilis jacksonensis Mansfield (Upper Miocene of Florida), was 
also compared with the Carolina specimens and was found to 
differ in a number of respects. 

Having completed the foregoing study, the author is con- 
vinced that the South Carolina form is deserving of subspecific 
rank, and a description of the new subspecies follows. 

Pecten (Plagioctenium) gibbus carolinensis subsp. no v. Plate 
1, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. 

Shell of moderate size, equilateral, equivalve and moderately 
convex, with fairly long hinge line. Anterior auricle of right 
valve rather strongly produced and having 4 riblets. Fine 
concentric lamellae in interspaces and crossing riblets, often 
producing scales on apexes. Distinct byssal sinus and ctenolium 

18 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

consisting of 5 or 6 teeth. Posterior auricle moderately pro- 
duced and having 6 or 7 riblets. Fine lamellae in interspaces 
of young shells; in larger specimens lamellae cross riblets but 
do not form scales. External hinge margin of right valve ir- 
regularly scaled, but not prominently. Anterior and posterior 
auricles of left valve having 5 to 7 riblets ; concentrically lamel- 
lated but not scaled. Disc of both valves having 18 to 21 ribs. 
On right valve ribs are rather broad and rounded, with distinct 
concentric lamellae (much stronger than on auricles) in inter- 
spaces. Kibs on left valve narrower, steeply rising and some- 
what flattened on top. Intercostal lamellae more numerous than 
on right valve, and in juvenile specimens present in interspaces 
only. As shell reaches altitude of 20 to 24 mm. lamellae con- 
tinue across ribs. Umbones not gibbous, tapering to point 
and, in left valve only, projecting slightly over hinge line. 
Coloration: left valve ranging from reddish brown to pale 
brown, variously mottled with white and deep brown. Right 
valve paler and often predominantly white ; mottled with colors 
corresponding to those of left valve ; anterior auricle always 

The holotype, in the author's collection, was taken at a depth 
of 80 feet, 2 miles off Port Royal, South Carolina, by Mr. R. C. 
Spencer. It measures : height 33 mm. ; length 34 mm. ; diameter 
14 mm. Paratypes have been deposited in the United States 
National Museum and the California Academy of Sciences, San 

The subspecies is easily distinguishable from typical gihius, 
the following constant features being the chief differences : 
valves much less convex, interspaces distinctly lamellated, byssal 
and posterior sinus pronounced and umbones pointed and not 
inflated. As an indication of relative tumidity (the most im- 
mediately apparent distinction) an average specimen of P. 
gibhus measuring 33 mm. in height, has a diameter of 19.5 mm., 
while the holotype of the subspecies, of the same height, has a 
diameter of only 14 mm. 

The author is grateful to Mr. Spencer for so generously 
supplying specimens, to Mr. Herman Gunter, of the Florida 
Geological Survey, for the loan of fossil material, and, in con- 
nection with research in general on the family Pectinidae, to Mr. 



Figs. 1, 6, Pecien gibbus L., Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, Pecten gibbus 
carolinensis Grau. 



Top row: Schizothacrus 'keenae Kuroda and Habe from Japan. Speci- 
mens furnished by Dr. Iwao Taki of Hiroshima University. Middle row: 
S. capax (Gould), San Juan Island, Washington. Bottom row: S. nuttalUi 
(Conrad), Orcas Island, Washington. 



Living horse clams, tipped to show siphoiial plates. S. capax 
(Gould; above: S. nuttallii (Conrad) below. 



Preserved horse clams. S. capax (Gould) above: 
S. nuttallii (Conrad) below. 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 19 

Leo G. Hertlein of the California Academy of Sciences, who has, 
for several years, given assistance and advice of immeasurable 


By emery F. swan and JOHN H. FINUCANE 

Friday Harbor Laboratories and School of Fisheries, University of 
Washington, Friday Harbor and Seattle, Washington 


In the spring of 1949, the senior author made a trip to 
Crescent Beach on Ship Bay at the head of East Sound, Orcas 
Island, Washington (Latitude 48°41'42" N., Longitude 122° 53' 
18" W.) for the purpose of learning the suitability of that place 
for intertidal study by his class in invertebrate zoology. While 
there he met Mr. Wesley Langell, a long time resident of Orcas 
Island, on the beach. Mr. Langell stated that two kinds of 
horse clams lived in the beach, one good eating and the other 
not worth bothering with. The good ones, he pointed out, 
usually had large barnacles on the siphonal plates, whereas the 
worthless ones did not. At the time the writer was not much 
impressed, but by the next spring he realized that these two 
kinds of horse clams were probably what zoologists have called 
Schizothaerus nuttallii nuttalUi (Conrad) Schizothaerus nut- 
tallii capax (Gould) or S. capax (Gould) as a full and separate 
species. Hence in the spring of 1950 he arranged to meet Mr. 
Langell again on the same beach on a good "clam tide." Upon 
the senior author's arrival there, Mr. Langell 's first comment 
was that the good clams were all gone and must have been 
frozen out. In digging several dozen Schizothaerus, neither of 
us found a single living specimen of the "good" horse clam. 
Several were found so recently dead that the decaying bodies 
were still within the shells. They proved to be the form 8. n. 
nuttallii. No recently dead 8. capax were found, although liv- 
ing ones and old empty shells were numerous. The writer 
learned that the periostracum of the siphons of 8. n. nuttallii 
is so much lighter in color, especially toward the shell, that the 
clam diggers on that beach term these clams "herefords" in 

20 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

contrast with the less desirable ;S^. capax which are refrred to as 
"horse clams." 

Later in 1950 by means of the barnacle-on-siphonal-plate 
method, the senior author located living S. n. nuttallii on shores 
having muddier soils and more direct access to the waters of 
the main channels of the region than was the case at Crescent 
Beach. Although no statistical studies were made either before 
or after the winter 1949-50, there appeared to be fewer 8. n. 
nuttallii after that winter also at False Bay on San Juan 
Island, Wash. (Lat. 48°29' N., Long. 123°04' W.) and on the 
San Juan Island Shore of Mosquito Pass (Lat. 48° 35^4' N., Long. 
123° 10%' W.). Both these places have direct access to open 
channels, but like Crescent Beach have a substratum essentially 
of sand. 

Since the time of these obseravtions, the senior author has 
been trying to explain this apparent situation. In the summer 
of 1951 the junior author, upon being presented with the above 
story, added his efforts. Now although there remain a number 
of unanswered questions, because the senior author is an- 
ticipating a move away from the Pacific Coast and because the 
junior author expects to have little time for zoological work in 
the future, we should like to present our tentative conclusions 
so that others may prove or disprove them. 

Problems Posed 

In question form, the items attacked may be posed as follows : 
1. Are 8. n. nuttallii and ^S^. n. capax one or two species? 2. How 
can they be distinguished ? 3. Do they have differences in habits 
and/or habitat preference? 4. Why would 8. n. nuttallii be 
killed by a cold winter (if that is what killed them) while at 
the same place ;S^. capax were unharmed? 5. Why were they 
apparently killed to a greater extent at some places than at 
others ? 

Tentative Explanations 

1. Although we are not fully satisfied that no intergrades be- 
tween 8. n. nuttallii and 8. capax occur, they appear to be defi- 
nitely not the rule in this region where the two live side by 
side. Thus we are inclined to believe the two act like full and 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 21 

separate species in this region. Careful study of the two species 
throughout their range of overlap which would appear to in- 
clude suitable habitats on the Pacific coast of North America 
between at least 37° and 49° north latitude may prove inter- 
gradation in other places. 

Their relative value as food may, beside explaining the great 
differences in the reputation of horse clams for food at different 
places, also be worth investigating biologically. It could have 
taxonomic bearing. In the region here considered, because of 
the time of day of spring tides and because of local habits and 
beliefs concerning the time of year when clams are good to eat, 
the vast majority of horse clams dug for food are taken between 
mid-March and mid-July. Thus if ^S'. n. nuttallii were in that 
period in prime condition approaching summer spawning and 
;S^. capax spawned out from late winter spawning, the difference 
in quality would be quite understandable. This has not been 
proved and should be investigated. 

2. The two species can in the vast majority of cases of adult 
individuals (shell over 3" in length) be readily separated by 
their shells. However, because the two have been so thoroughly 
confused in the literature, their differences being* minimized, 
and because the relationship to fossil forms has not been studied 
by the present writers, we illustrate shells of both in fig. 1 along 
with the recently described S. keenae Kuroda and Habe (1950) 
of Japanese waters, 8. nuttallii is obviously much more ex- 
tended posteriorly, and is not so high a shell dorso-ventrally as 
8. capax. The angle on the ventral side of the shell is much 
more marked in the latter. This angle continues up the sides of 
the valves. 

The barnacle-on-the-siphon method of distinguishing the two 
before digging was surprisingly useful. Examination of com- 
plete specimens both alive and preserved (see figs. 2 and 3) 
revealed the siphonal plates to be much heavier and harder in 
8. nuttallii than in *S^. capax. As was further noted, the above 
mentioned difference in color of the periostracum over the siphon 
was at least in part a result of the fact that in 8. capax this 
periostracum is constantly being sloughed off whereas in 8. 
nuttallii it is retained as a tough, externally-smooth membrane. 
Further examination of siphonal plates leads the writers to 

22 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

suspect that as they are secreted, the secreted material builds 
up by addition in S. nuttallii, whereas in >S^. capax the older outer 
layers peel off as new material is added internally. Injured 
siphons obviously do not show this clearly. 

The senior author notes that by feeling of the siphons it is 
much more difficult to distinguish geoducks (Panope) from the 
horse clams in the San Juan region than at Tomales Bay, Cali- 
fornia, and is nearly certain that this is because of the softer 
siphon tips of S. capax, which is much more common in the 
more northern locality. On one occasion, clams were collected 
when small barnacles were settling on whatever was available. 
They were fully as numerous on the siphons of ;S^. capax as 8. 
nuttallii. The absence of large barnacles on the plates of 8. 
capax would appear to result from the sloughing off of the 
outer part of the plates to which they are attached. 

At the time studied (July and August 1951), the color of the 
interior of the siphonal canals, especially toward the distal ends 
of the siphons, was noted to be a brighter and deeper orange in 
8. capax than in 8. nuttallii. In the muscles surrounding the 
orange lining, there was generally found considerably more 
purplish-blue color in 8. nuttallii than in ;S^. capax. Exact color 
designations have not been attempted, because this work is 
considered preliminary, needing checking in other places and 
at other times by other workers. The present writers also 
suspect consistent differences between the two species in num- 
bers of papillae around the siphonal openings and possibly also 
in the color of these papillae. 

3. Although the depths, at which these clams reside in the 
substratum as adults, are greatly affected by the texture of that 
substratum, our impression is that, conditions being the same, 
8. nuttallii digs the deeper. It also appears to prefer the looser 
soils-sands, fine gravels, and easily dug muds. 8. capax in con- 
trast appears to be found more commonly in more compact mud 
and gravel mixtures. This difference is not complete. Both 
are often found together. 

4. In consideration of the apparent difference in the effect of 
extreme cold upon these clams, one is desirous of information 
concerning the winter of 1949-50 and of the geographic ranges 
of these species. The writers were duly impressed by the bliz- 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 23 

zard of Jan. 13th, 1950; in one of its publications, the U. S. 
Department of Commerce (1950) summarizes the weather for 
Jan. 13-14, 1950 as "Apparently most severe cold storm . . . 
ever to have struck Washington state since records began. . . . 
Additional damage due to the aftermath of storm and further 
heavy snows and severe cold weather until end of month . . . " ; 
and unpublished records of the Friday Harbor Laboratories in- 
dicate that between Jan. 12 and 17, both dates inclusive, the 
air temperature in our observation shack never rose above 23° F. 
and during the period the sea water temperature at approxi- 
mately one meter below the surface dropped nearly a full degree 
Centigrade. To give some idea of the significance of these local 
observations, we point out that the air temperatures mentioned 
are recorded within 60 feet of the water from which the wind 
blows directly when in the northeast, as it did at that time. The 
sea water temperatures were taken as described by Phifer and 
Thompson (1937), where the water is well mixed and where the 
annual variation generally is scarcely over 6 to 7° C. 

As indicated in Burch (1945), the exact extent of the ranges 
of the two clams is not completely known. Keen (1937) lists 
the range of 8. capax as 37°-58° N. latitude and 8. nuttallii as 
28°-38° N. latitude. Dr. Keen has examined some of our shells 
and has conceded that the range of *S^. nuttallii extends at least as 
far north at 48° N. 

Thus the species at or near the northern limit of its range 
apparently was severely affected by an unusual winter, whereas 
the species near the middle of its range was unaffected. 

5. Apparently the extreme effect was felt at the head of East 
Sound. Records on file at the Oceanographic Laboratories of the 
University of Washington indicate that in summer the water in 
this 7-mile long narrow bay often reaches temperatures several 
degrees warmer than that of the open channels nearby. Thus 
one suspects that in periods of severe cold the reverse effect 
might prevail. The tide tables (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1949) 
predicted low tides for the nights of Jan. 12-17, 1950, as ranging 
from + 0.6 to — 2.1 feet from mean low low water. This means 
that for each of these nights the clam flats were exposed or 
under very shallow water for several hours. In East Sound with 
its head toward the north, the wind was with little doubt fun- 

24 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

neled by the contour of the surrounding land so that it blew 
strongly down sound. This could have made the tides even 

As mentioned above, the writers suspected a reduction in 
population of 8. nuttallii on other sand beaches but not on 
those having firmer (and incidentally blacker and more clayey) 
substrata. This poses two questions : Does a sand beach change 
its temperature more rapidly than one of a firm dark colored 
mud-clay-gravel mixture? Could the more deeply buried 8. 
nuttallii in a sand beach be more severely affected by shifting 
of the substratum, incident to a severe storm, than the less deeply 
buried 8. capax, or than ;8^. nuttallii in a beach less shifted by 
the storm? To these questions, the writers have no answers. 
Future workers may find evidence on the subjects suggested. 

Another aspect that may be pertinent is that of relative size 
of mantle cavity of the two species. The writers have fre- 
quently noted that 8chizothaerus when disturbed in summer 
would eject from the siphons water considerably cooler than 
that standing in the hole over the clam before the latter was 
disturbed. Thus they suspect that the pumping of the water 
is appreciably reduced in rate at low tide. Because of the shape 
of its shell, they suspect that ;S^. capax has a greater internal vol- 
ume in comparison with its external surface than 8. nuttallii. 
And if within its shell 8. capax at that time also had less 
' ' meat, ' ' the volume of water held through the unfavorable low 
tide periods would be comparatively even greater. Whether 
this factor could be significant is not known. 

Incidental Observations 

1. In recent papers (Swan 1952, '53), I have suggested that 
where the clam Mya arenaria L. grows rapidly its shell is thinner 
than where its growth is slower. On several occasions in con- 
nection with the present work, beaches were studied where 
8. capax obviously grew very rapidly, but where no large speci- 
mens could be found. On a number of occasions when the 
largest clams were dug from the beaches, after they were re- 
moved from their burrows, the shell would be broken by the 
contraction of the adductor muscles. These were invariably 
sand beaches. Could it be that on a sand beach favorable for 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 25 

the growth of S. capax this clam grows so rapidly that soon its 
shell is not strong enough for its mechanical needs? 

2. After the same winter the populations of numerous other 
moUusks were noted to be reduced. Most interesting of these 
to the writers was Mytiliis edulis L. This is a species said to 
range north to 72° N. (Keen, 1937). Does it consist of races 
varying in temperature tolerances? Were those living on local 
rocks inadequately acclimated before the freeze. Is it capable 
of living so far north because of great repopulating ability from 
residual "seed stocks" living below the level of the lowest tides? 

Fraser (1921) reports similar effects for the winter of 1915- 
16, and Draycott (1951, p. 21) notes the death of thousands of 
Mya arenaria L. in the winter of 1949-50. 


The writers wish to explain that their limited reference to 
the literature is purely in the interest of getting these observa- 
tions before people who may be interested and is in no sense an 
attempt to claim as original observations what others have pre- 
viously made. 

On numerous occasions. Dr. Myra Keen of the School of 
Natural Sciences at Stanford Universitj^ has freely given help- 
ful advice. For a considerable amount of the hard work in- 
volved in collecting these species in the numbers studied and 
for helpful corroborating observations, the writers wish to thank 
Mr. Albert Bolst of the Zoology Department of the University 
of Washington. This study was assisted by the state of Wash- 
ington funds for medical and biological research and made pos- 
sible by the State of Washington Department of Fisheries 
through their permission for the collecting of clams of the genus 
SchizotJiaerus in quantities beyond the legal sports limit. The 
photographs, which add so much to the value of the work, were 
made by Whitie Marten of the Campus Studios of the Univer- 
sity of Washington. 

Literature Cited 

BuRCH, J. Q. (Editor). 1945. Distributional list of the west 
American marine mollusks. ... I. Pelecypoda. Minutes, 
Conch. Club, So. Calif. 

26 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

Draycot, "W. M. 1951. The Pleistocene, or ice age, of south- 
west British Columbia. The Art, Historical and Scientific As- 
sociation of Vancouver [B. C, Canada], Museum and Art 
Notes, second series, 2 (1) : 14-22. 

Fraser, C. McL. 1921. Some apparent effects of severe 
weather on the marine organisms in the vicinity of De- 
parture Bay, B. C. Contrib. Canad. Biol. 1918-1920 : 29-33. 

Keen, A. M. 1937. An abridged check list and bibliography 
of West North America Mollusca. Stanford U. Press. 

KuRODA, T. AND T. Habe. 1950. Nomenclatural notes. Illus- 
trated catalogue of Japanese shells. Edited by Dr. Tokubei 
Kuroda No. 4, p. 30. 

Phifer, L. D. and T. G. Thompson. 1937. Seasonal variations 
in the surface waters of San Juan Channel during the five-year 
period, January, 1931, to December 30, 1935, J. Marine Res., 
1: 34-59. 

Swan, E. F. 1952. Growth indices of the clam My a arenaria 
L. Ecology [accepted for July, 1952, issue]. 

. 1953. The growth of the clam Mya arenaria L. as affected 

by the substratum. Ecology [tentatively accepted for Jan., 
1953, issue]. 

U. S. Department of Commerce 1949. Tide tables west coast 
North and South America . . . for the year 1950. 

. 1950. Monthly Weather Review, 78 (1), January, 1950. 


Mariemont, Ohio 


The information contained herein was collected personally by 
the writer through contact with bait and tackle dealers who are 
selling living European snails for fish bait in the Cincinnati 
area of southwestern Ohio. The snail species are Otala-lactea 
Miiller and Cepaea hortensis (Mliller). Locally these snails 
are recommended as good bait for the channel cat, Ictalurus 
lacustris (Walbaum), and the Black Bullhead, Ameiurus melas 
(Rafinesque), which are stocked in commercial fish ponds in 
southwestern Ohio. The stocking source is Lake Erie, from 
which these fish are carried by special truck, to be placed in 
numerous commercial fish-ponds in southwestern Ohio. 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 27 

Price and Method of Shipping 

Because of the competition revolving about bait and tackle 
dealers marketing' of European snails for fish bait, data on the 
source of such importations are not very revealing. However, 
local dealers state that the European snails discussed here come 
from Italy through the port of New York. Local opinion is 
that they are imported into New York for use as food by 
Italians. Their value as fish bait apparently is not a prime 
factor for importation. 

The price bait and tackle dealers pay for snails in bulk has 
not been determined. Otala lactea are marketed to fishermen in 
ice-cream cups or cottage cheese containers for forty cents a 
dozen while sixteen Cepaea hortensis cost twenty-five cents. A 
dozen Otala lactea may weigh some 66 grams, while a dozen 
Cepaea hortensis weighs some 35 grams. Bulk shipping con- 
tainers in which Otala lactea are transported from Italy to New 
York and then to Cincinnati may hold as many as 3,600 indi- 
viduals. Assuming that all snails are alive on arrival in Cincin- 
nati the gross return on 3,600 snails would be one hundred and 
twent}^ dollars. 

The writer has^ been able to obtain for exhibit purposes one 
container that had held Otala lactea. This container is hand 
woven from a green, uncured species of bamboo. It is cylindri- 
cal in shape with a height of 17V2 inches and a diameter 16 
inches. In the middle of the basket there is a perpendicular 
cylinder of woven bamboo, 16% inches high with a diameter of 
3% inches. Such a shipping container is quite porous and 
allows for a good circulation of air through its physical con- 
struction. Snails shipped in such a container are in aestivation 
on arrival. The aestivation is apparently brought about and 
maintained by close packing and by air circulation. A layer of 
excelsior 3i^ inches thick is placed in the top with another of 
the same thickness in the bottom of the container. These layers 
prevent the escape of snails from the large holes and slits that 
are especially prominent in the bottom and top of the basket, 
aid as shock cushions, and conceivably enhance aestivation. 

Several bait and tackle dealers stated that very few dead snails 
are ever found when such baskets are unpacked. 

28 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

On arrival in the dealer's hands in the Cincinnati area snails 
are removed from the shipping containers and are transferred 
to galvanized garbage cans. Here they are held in a dry state 
with epiphragms in place until they are sold. 

Snail Importation and Legislation 

The question of legislation against living snail importations 
has of recent years created a great interest in malacological 
circles, Teskey (1951) and Smith (1951). Popular articles on 
snail pests (such as appeared in the August, 1949, Atlantic 
Monthly and the October, 1949, Reader's Digest), pointing out 
the lack of Federal quarantines, have made people aware of the 
agricultural pest possibilities of certain introduced snails. An 
excellent paper by Abbott (1950) has surveyed imported land, 
fresh water, and marine pest snails that are now established in 
the United States. 

A great deal of the interest in exclusion legislation has re- 
volved around the so-called Giant African Snails, Achatina. 
The writer wishes to point out that while a Goliath may be at- 
tempting to make inroads within our midst that David should 
not be overlooked. If Otala lactea and Cepaea hortensis are 
being used in Ohio in the living state for fish bait, is there not 
reason to suppose that they are being shipped alive elsewhere? 
In ideal climatic zones in the United States they could at any 
time possibly become established to make inroads into American 
agriculture. Thus, another cost item may be added to final 
prices of certain crops to the consumer. The establishment of 
snail pests in agricultural areas of the United States may be a 
subtle process as illustrated by the establishment of the agri- 
cultural pest snail, the European Brown Snail, Helix aspersa 
Miiller, in California, Abbott (1950), Bassinger (1931). 

Method of Fishing w^ith Snails and 
Snail Disposal 

The common procedure of preparing introduced European 
snails for baiting the hook is to crush them with a whack of the 
hand against a board, rock, or any convenient object. After 
this is done the hook is placed through the foot and the shell 
pieces discarded. Once on the hook, the foot moves about, serv- 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 29 

ing as a wriggling lure. The writer has taken young channel 
eats, Black Bullheads, and Pumpkinseeds, Lepomis gihhosus 
(Linnaeus), on snail bait. 

The writer found that fishermen that did not use all of their 
snails would throw them off into the bushes. Several lots have 
been taken in herbaceous weeds marginal to commercial fish 
ponds in the Cincinnati area. 

Depositories of Snail Exhibits 

Samples of European snails, extended and preserved, that 
were purchased from bait and tackle dealers in the Cincinnati 
area are being deposited in the following institutions : U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. ; University Museum, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia ; Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; California 
Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. A snail shipping container that was obtained in Cincin- 
nati will be housed in the U. S. National Museum. 


I wish to express my appreciation to William Nicholas Ingram 
who discovered the European snails being used for fish bait in 
Southwestern Ohio. 


Abbott, R. T. 1950. Snail invaders. Natural History (No- 
vember), pp. 80-85. 

Basinger, a. J. 1931. The European brown snail in California. 
Univer. Calif. Coll. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 515, pp. 1-22. 

Smith, A. G. 1951. American Malacological Union — Pacific 
Division Minutes of the Fourth Annual Meeting. News Bull, 
and Ann. Kept., Amer. Malac. Union, pp. 18-25. 

Teskey, M. C. 1951. The American Malacological Union Seven- 
teenth Annual Meeting. News Bull, and Ann. Rept. Amer. 
Malac. Union, pp. 1-14. 

30 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 


Dr, Harold J. Finlay, one of the best-known workers on the 
recent and fossil mollusks of New Zealand, passed away on 
April 7, 1951. 

He was born in India in 1901 as the son of Baptist mission- 
aries. As a child he contracted a severe case of poliomyelitis, 
which caused his parents to move to New Zealand, where they 
settled in Dunedin. As a result of his illness he became confined 
to a wheel-chair for the rest of his life, a handicap that he bore 
stoically, and that did not prevent him from gaining' an out- 
standing name for himself in his chosen field. 

It was while an undergraduate at Otago University that Dr. 
Finlay became interested in paleontology, and began to collect 
recent and tertiary mollusks. His increasing interest in this 
subject soon caused him to abandon his first love of chemistry, 
and in 1924-1926 he did graduate work at the University of 
Otago as National Research Scholar in Paleontology. 

In 1926 he was awarded the Hamilton Prize of the Royal 
Society of New Zealand, and in 1927 was given a D.Sc. for a 
comprehensive work on molluscan systematics. This was his well 
known ''A Further Commentary of New Zealand Molluscan 
Systematics" (Trans. New Zealand Institute, vol. 57, 1926, pp. 
320-485, pi. 18-23). From 1927-1929 he carried out biological 
work for the Fisheries Board of the Marine Department. 

In 1933 Dr. Finlay took up the study of foraminifera and 
served as micropaleontologist with two oil companies in New 
Zealand. In 1937 he was appointed micropaleontologist to the 
New Zealand Geological Survey, where for the next fourteen 
years he carried on his studies on the foraminifera, adding to 
his already widely recognized renown as one of New Zealand's 
most distinguished paleontologists. In 1939 he received the 
Hector Award and Medal from the Royal Society of New 
Zealand for distinguished work on Mollusca and Foraminifera. 

He leaves a wife, Mrs. Dorothy Finlay, and two daughters. 

Although Dr. Finlay gave up the study of mollusks in his later 
years, his publications on that subject will always be of the 
greatest importance and value to malacologists all over the 
world. They are outstanding for the comprehensive knowledge 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 31 

of malacology they reveal, and for the clarity of thought and 
thoroughness of preparation that is evident on every page. 

Most of the material for this sketch was taken from a me- 
morial by N. de B. Hornbrook, published in volume 5, no. 3 
(July 1951) of The Micropaleontologist. — H. A. Rehder. 


Dr. William F. Clapp of Duxbury, Massachusetts, died at his 
home on December 28, 1951 at the age of 71. He was born in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1880. During his early years at 
Harvard College he met Alexander Agassiz and shortly after- 
ward became an assistant in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology devoting his time and energies to mollusks under Dr. 
Walter Faxon. He held this position from 1911 to 1923 when 
he resigned to take a research position at Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology working on the family Teredinidae. Some 
three years later he resigned from this position, but retained 
his association with the Institution, to set up a commercial 
laboratory at Duxbury, Massachusetts for the study of ways 
and means of combating the damage done by Teredo and other 
marine organisms. This laboratory shortly became one of the 
most important of its kind in the world, with many private 
companies and government agencies depending upon it for in- 
formation on marine boring and fouling organisms in connec- 
tion with their wharves and other marine installations through- 
out the world. 

A more detailed account of Dr. Clapp and his work in the 
field of mollusks will be published later. — W. J. Clench. 


Dates of the Nautilus, Vol. 65, No, 1, pp. 1-36, pis. 1 and 
2, Aug. 27, 1951. No. 2, pp. 37-72, pis. 3 and 4, Nov. 9, 1951. 
No. 3, pp. 73-108, pi. 5, Feb. 25, 1952. No. 4, pp. 109-144, i-vii, 
May 22, 1952.— H. B. B. 

The European Planorbarius corneus var. ruber, or red 
ramshorn snail of the home aquarium, seemed quite prolific in 
the large tank so one was removed on January 24th for observa- 

32 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

tion, and placed in a small bowl, with carefully washed greens 
and lettuce. The following record was kept daily for one month. 

January 26 : two egg deposits appeared on the side of the 
bowl, 14 inch in diameter, and almost colorless. Jan. 27 : cell- 
like segmentation was noted in one cluster. Jan. 28 : two more 
egg deposits. Jan. 29: one egg. Jan. 31: one egg. Feb. 1: one 
egg. Feb. 2: two eggs. Feb. 4: one egg. Feb. 5: one egg. 
Feb. 8 : two deposits. Feb. 10 to 14 : snail eating, and for last 
two days remaining stationary on the bottom of the globe. Feb. 
16 : two new egg clusters. Feb. 17 : one deposit on glass above 
water line. Feb. 20-23: no new deposits; two above water 
became dry and powdery. Feb. 24: some ten or twelve tiny 
snails were noted, crawling on the sides of the bowl. Record 
was closed. — Dorothy D. Freas, 8935 86th Street, Woodhaven 
21, New York. 

Mesanella, a new genus in the Camaenidae. — In a revision 
of the Philippine members of this family we have segregated 
several species that belong to a group quite separate and distinct 
from PhoenicoMus Morch, a group in which they have generally 
been included. The species in Mesanella are globose to depressed- 
globose usually wider than high and smooth to rather coarsely 
and axially ribbed. The shells may be of a plain color or banded. 
The shells of Phoenicohius are generally pupoid in shape with a 
dome shaped spire. They are usually higher than wide and 
often possess apertural teeth, a character not known to exist in 
Mesanella. Genotype, Helix trailli Pfeiffer. 

Our studies indicate that this new genus occurs only on 
Palawan and the Balabac Islands. In addition to Mesanella 
trailli (Pfeiffer) it includes M. monochroa (Sowerby) and its 
many associated species and subspecies. Mesanella is named 
for Pedro de Mesa, a teacher of English in the Philippines, who 
has done much to advance our knowledge of Philippine 
mollusks, especially those from the islands of Lubang, Mindoro 
and Palawan. — W. J. Clench and R. D. Turner. 

Corrections. — Localities (cf. 1950, Naut., 64, p. 56) for 
Holospira roemeri are Dierck's Ford, Guadalupe River, Kendal 
Co. ; West Verde Creek, Bandera Co. ; Sanderson, Terrell Co., 
Texas. H. roemeri hrevissima Pilsbry also was found at Garner 
State Park, Uvalde Co., Texas. — C. D. Orchard. 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 33 

Dates of publication of Johannes Thiele: Handbuch der 
Systematischen "Weichtierkunde, Jena, Germany. — This work 
was originall}^ issued in four parts and sent to subscribers as 
these parts were published. When the work was completed 
these four parts were collated and bound in two volumes. The 
dates were changed on the title pages of the bound volumes to 
correspond to the dates of issue of the second part of Volume I 
and the fourth part of Volume II. This is most unfortunate 
as many new names were introduced by Thiele and errors re- 
garding dates of these names are certain to get into subsequent 
publications. The original dates are as follows : 

Vol. I (Erster Band), part 1 (Erster Teil), pp. 1-376 . . 1929 
part 2 (Zweiter Teil), title pages I-VI and pp. 377-778 1931 

Vol. II (Zweiter Band), part 3 (Dritter Teil), pp. 779- 

1022 1934 

part 4 (Vierter Teil), title pages I-VI and pp. 1023-1154 1935 

The collated and bound sets carry the dates of 1931 for 
Volume I and 1935 for Volume II. — W. J. Clench. 

The Fossil Snail Eggs of the Loess. — The occurrence of 
fossil snail eggs in the loess of the Upper Mississippi Valley has 
been noted by various authors, but to my knowledge no attempt 
has been made to identify them. These small hollow calcareous 
spheres are found in three distinct sizes. The smallest and most 
numerous range in diameter from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. The medium 
sized form is slightly oval, and ranges in size from 1.7 X 1.9 mm. 
to 2.1 X 2.2 mm. The large size, which is quite rare, range 
from 3.6 to 3.7 mm. in diameter. 

The most abundant group of land snails of the loess, the 
Polygyridae, lay gelatinous shelled eggs which would not be 
preserved. The only genera known to me which lay calcareous 
shelled eggs are : Haplotrema, Anguispira, and Discus. Eggs 
of Discus cronkhitei measured 1.3 mm. in diameter. As Discus 
cronkhitei (Newcomb), D. macclintocki (F. C. Baker), and D. 
shimeki (Pils.) are abundant in the loess there seems to be 
little doubt that the small eggs belong to these species. The eggs 
oi Haplotrema concavum (Say) and Anguispira alt ernat a (Say) 
are not distinguishable. An egg of H. concavum measured 
2.1 X 2.4 mm., and an egg of A. a. crassa (Walker) measured 

34 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

2.2 X 2.4 mm. H. concavum is rare in the loess, but A. alternata 
is common, and it is quite probable that the medium sized eggs 
belong to it. Two eggs of Anguispira kochi (Pfr.) measured 
3.4 X 3.9 and 3.5 X 3.5 mm. One of the large fossil eggs was 
found inside the shell of A. kochi, which leaves no doubt that 
the large snail eggs belong to this species. — Leslie Hubricht. 


Directory op Conchologists. By John Q. Burch, 1584 W. 
Vernon Ave., Los Angeles, 1952. Price $1.50. — Most of us find 
frequent use for this list of about 1800 names and addresses of 
shell experts and collectors from all over the world. 

Checklist and bibliography of the Recent Marine Mol- 
LUSCA OF Japan. By Tokubei Kuroda and Tadashige Habe. 
Large 8vo, 210 pp., map. Edited and published by Leo W. 
Stach. Price $4.00 U. S.— The list includes 1,048 bivalves, 
3,313 univalves and 34 scaphopods. The checklist is in the form 
of an alphabetic list of the generic names applied to Japanese 
marine Mollusca with the species listed alphabetically under 
each genus. The numbers of the appropriate bibliographic 
references (more than 1,700) are given after each species and 
genus. Invalid names are cross-referenced to the current valid 
names. The range in latitude north of the equator, and the 
province of each species is indicated. 

This work should form a valuable basis for reference by col- 
lectors. Some new generic names are proposed, and some new 
specific names are included for forms previously misidentified. 
It is obtainable from Leo. W. Stach, Tokyo Central Post Office, 
Box 121, Tokyo, Japan— H. A. P. 

In recent years a number of articles pertaining to mollusks 
have been published in the Bulletin of the Southern California 
Academy of Sciences. Inasmuch as the latest volume of the 
Zoological Record includes only articles published prior to 
1948, the titles and new species described in this Bulletin from 
1948 to 1951 are here listed for the convenience of students : 

July, 1952] THE NAUTILUS 35 

Volume 47 

Part. 1. Jan.-Apr. 1948, pp. 11-16. Ingram, W. M., A check 
list of the Haplotrematidae, Tcstacellidae and Zonitidae of 

Pp. 17-20. Willett, Geo., Four new gastropods from the 
Upper Pleistocene of Newport Bay Mesa, Orange Co., Calif. 
{Turhonilla {Turbonilla) grouardi, Odostomia {Menestho) 
effiac, Odostomia {Chrysallida) elsiae, Triphora kanaka ffi, n. 

Part 3. Sept.-Dec, 1948, pp. 100-102. Gregg, W. 0., A new 
and unusual helicoid snail from Los Angeles Co., Calif. (Sono- 
relix {Herpeteros) angelus, n. sp.). 

Volume 48 

Part 1. Jan.-Apr., 1949, pp. 13-18. Hertlein, L. G., and 
Hanna, G. D., Two new species of Mytilopsis from Panama and 
Fiji {Mytilopsis allyneana and zeteki, n. spp.). 

PP. 19-34. Ingram, W. M., A check list of the Limacidae, 
Endodontidae, Arionidae, Succineidae, Pupillidae, Valloniidae, 
Carychiidae, and Truncatellidae of California. 

Part 2. May-Aug., 1949, pp. 71-93. Strong, A. M., Addi- 
tional Pyramidellidae from the Gulf of California {Turhonilla 
{Chemnitzia) sinaloana, T. {Strioturhonilla) asuncionis, T. 
{Pyrgiscus) alarconi, T. {Pyrgiscus) kaliwana, T. {Pyrgiscus) 
guaicurana, T. {Pyrgiscus) aripana, T. {Pyrgiscus) cochimiana, 
T. {Pyrgiscus) pericuana, Odostomia {Chrysallida) sorensoni, 
0. {Ividella) ulloana, 0. {Menestho) ciguatanis, n. spp.). 

Volume 49 

Part 1. Jan.-Apr., 1950, pp. 15-28. Hand, Cadet, and 
Ingram, W. M., Natural history observations on Prophysaon 
andersoni (J. G. Cooper), with special reference to amputation. 

Part 3. Sept.-Dec, 1950, pp. 79-89. Kanakoff, G. P., Con- 
tributions from Los Angeles Co. Museum — Channel Islands Biol. 
Surv. No. 34. Some observations on the land snails of San 
Clemente Island. {Micrarionta {Xerarionta) agnesae, n. sp.). 

36 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (1) 

Volume 50 

Part 2. May-Aug., 1951, pp. 68-75. Hertlein, L. G., De- 
scriptions of two new species of marine pelecypods from West 
Mexico. (Ostrea corteziensis and Tagelus {Mesopleura) hour- 
geoisae, n. spp.). 

Pp. 76-80. Hertlein, L. G., and Strong, A. M., Descriptions 
of three new species of marine gastropods from West Mexico 
and Guatemala {Latirus soccoroensis, Aspella hakeri, and Margi- 
nella woodhridgei, n. spp.). 

Pp. 89-91. Emerson, W. K., An unusual habitat for Zirfaea 

Part 3. Sept.-Dec, 1951, pp. 152-155. Hertlein, L. G., and 
Strong, A. M., Descriptions of two new species of marine gastro- 
pods from West Mexico and Costa Rica {Acmaea turveri and 
Alvania milleriana, n. spp.). 

Pp. 156-159. Gregg, W. 0., A new Sonorella from the Chiri- 
cahua Mtns., Ariz. {Sonorella neglecta, n. sp.). — W. K. Emerson. 

The Mussels op the Mississippi River. — By Henry and An- 
nette van der Schalie. American Midland Naturalist 44, No. 2, 
1950. This review is based largely upon the survey conducted by 
Max M. Ellis and his staff in 1930 and 1931, but with cognizance 
of the large body of previous data. The distribution patterns 
of the naiades are discussed, and the following regions are 
recognized. I, Atlantic, characterized by the preponderance of 
Elliptio, and extending south to the Altamaha River, Georgia. 
II, Pacific. Ill, Mississippi. IV, Ozark, with Arkansia wheeleri, 
etc. VI, Cumberlandian. VII, West Floridan or Appalachico- 
lan, in western non-peninsular Florida, with Quincuncina, 
Margaritana hemheli, etc. A map illustrates these divisions, 
which agree well with those indicated if the prosobraneh gastro- 
pods be taken into account. However, apparently one additional 
region, the Alabaman would be needed, on account of the de- 
velopment of peculiar pupiform Pleuroceridae, Tulotoma, Lepy- 
rium, etc. 

The publication is already so condensed that no summary can 
give an idea of the data presented on distribution of Mississippi 
River mussels. — H. A. P. 

The Nautilus 

Vol. 66 OCTOBER, 1952 No. 2 



Fossiliferous deposits in the Nebraskan Stage of the Pleisto- 
cene are known from the David City formation in northeastern 
Kansas (Doniphan County), from the Blanco formation in the 
south-central part of the State (Kingman County), and in 
several counties of the southwest, notably Meade and Seward. 
Molluscan faunas from sands and silts in these formations are 
being studied as part of a comprehensive investigation of the 
sequence of molluscan faunal assemblages in Pleistocene deposits 
in the midcontinent region, but particularly in Kansas. A dis- 
tinctive molluscan faunal assemblage has been described from 
late Kansan or early Yarmouthian Stage of the Pleistocene 
sediments here (Frye, Swineford and Leonard, 1948; Leonard, 
1950) ; distinctive molluscan faunal assemblages have been listed 
from Illionian and Wisconsinan stages of the Pleistocene in 
Kansas (Frye and Leonard, 1951) ; molluscan faunas have been 
utilized to zone stratigraphically the massive Peoria loess in the 
State (Leonard, 1951) ; and a detailed report of studies of the 
molluscan faunal assemblages in the Illinoian and Wisconsinan 
stages of the Pleistocene has recently been published (Leonard, 
1952). A study of the mollusks in Pleistocene sediments of 
Nebraskan Age is now in progress. 

Study of the fossil mollusks of Nebraskan Age in Kansas has 
resulted in the discovery of several und escribed kinds of gastro- 
pods in these sediments. It is the purpose of this paper to 
name, describe and illustrate these fossil gastropods. 




[Vol. 66 (2) 

Amnicola crybetes, new species. Plate 5, fig. A 

Holotype. — Catalogue number 3805, Molluscan Collection, Uni- 
versity of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and para- 
types from type locality collected by C. W. Hibbard. 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Fifteen miles east of Liberal (center W line, 
sec. 36, T. 34 S, R. 31 W), Seward County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — Shell small, a little more than 3 mm. high, 
broadly conic, perforate, whorls strongly convex, turreted, 5 in 
number, the last inflated; suture deeply impressed; first whorl 

Description of holotype. — Shell small, broadly conic, per- 
forate ; whorls 5 in number, strongly convex, increasing rapidly 
in diameter, the last inflated ; suture deeply incised ; apex not 
acute ; first whorl subplanorbid ; height of spire half that of 
shell; peristome continuous, not adnate to preceding whorl, 
broadly oval above, rounded below ; lip thin, sharp, simple, some- 
what reflected over the round umbilical perforation, but not 
closing it ; nuclear whorl finely granular, remaining whorls with 
fine, raised, vertical lines, which at short intervals coalesce into 
low ridges of variable width ; spiral lines wanting. 

Comparisons. — Amiiicola cryhetes differs from A. walkeri in 
its larger size, less broadly conic outline, and greater number 
of whorls ; it is smaller and more broadly conic than A. lustrica. 
Since it is impossible to determine the relationships of kinds of 
Amnicola from the shell alone, the true affinities of this species 
remain uncertain. 

Aperture Aperture of 
Height Diameter height width whorls 


(no. 3806) 

3.33 mm. 2.25 mm. 1.55 mm. 1.35 mm. 5 

3.24 mm. 2.34 mm. 1.44 mm. 1.35 mm. 5 

3.33 mm. 2.34 mm. 1.53 mm. 1.35 mm. 5 

3.40 mm. 2.52 mm. 1.62 mm. 1.36 mm. 5 

3.35 mm. 2.45 mm. 1.50 mm. 1.37 mm. 5 

The name '' cryhetes" is from the Greek word meaning 
"hidden in the earth." 



Leonard: Now Gastropods from the Blanco formation. 

Oct., 1952] 



Lymnaea diminuta, new species. Plate 5, fig. B 

Holoiype. — Catalogue number 8801, Molluscan Collection, 
University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Type and 
paratypes collected by A. B. Leonard and Alice E. Leonard. 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Nine miles south, 7 miles west of Meade (SW 
14 sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 29 W), Meade County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — Shell small, approximately 5 mm. high, conic, 
with 5 moderately convex whorls, gradually enlarging, except 
the last which is greatly enlarged and ventricose ; aperture 
broadly ovate ; inner lip of peristome reflected upon, and adnate 
to the preceding whorl, leaving round umbilicus open by small 

Description of holotype. — Shell conic, of medium size for the 
genus; 5 moderately convex whorls, nuclear whorl planorbid, 
those of spire turreted, last greatly enlarged and ventricose; 
aperture broadl}^ ovate, more than half as high as shell ; outerlip 
of peristome simple, strongly convex; inner lip thin, upper part 
adnate to preceding whorl, lower part reflected over columella, 
without entirely closing round umbilicus; nuclear whorl smooth, 
remaining whorls with inconspicuous, raised, vertical striae ; no 
spiral striae. 

Comparisons. — Lymnaea diminuta seems to have derived from 
a stock of L. humilis, or at least to be related to it, but it does 
not intergrade with it in the known populations. Lymnaea dimi- 
nuta is quite unlike the other small Lymnaeas, such as L. parva 
and L. dalli. 

Aperture Aperture of 
Height Diameter height width whorls 


5.2 mm. 

2.9 mm. 

2.9 mm. 

2.0 mm. 



5.1 mm. 

2.6 mm. 

2.2 mm. 

1.8 mm. 


(no. 3774) 

4.3 mm. 

2.4 mm. 

2.3 mm. 

1.8 mm. 


4.2 mm. 

2.5 mm. 

2.3 mm. 

1.5 mm. 


4.1 mm. 

2.6 mm. 

2.5 mm. 

1.6 mm. 


Lymnaea turritella, new species. Plate 5, fig. C 

Holoiype. — Catalogue number 3807, Molluscan Collection, 
University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and 
paratypes from type locality collected by C. W. Hibbard. 



[Vol. 66 (2) 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Fifteen miles east of Liberal (center W 
line, sec. 36, T. 34 S, R. 31 W), Seaward County, Oklahoma. 

Diagnosis. — Shell characterized by small size, elongate, nar- 
rowly conic form, with 5 to 5^2 turreted whorls, and small, oval 

Description of holotype. — Shell small, narrowly conic, 5i/^ 
turreted whorls, which increase regularly in size, all whorls 
flattened and strongly shouldered above, except body whorl, 
which is slightly swollen and convex; suture deeply impressed; 
apex sub-acute; nuclear whorl small, subplanorbid ; height of 
spire more than half that of shell; aperture elongate-oval; 
terminations of peristome connected by a thin callus across pre- 
ceding whorl ; peristome thin, simple along angular border, re- 
flected along parietal part, sinuous, nearly covering narrow 
umbilical perforation ; nuclear whorl finely granular, succeed- 
ing whorls with fine but distinct, vertical, raised striae that 
increase in coarseness toward body whorl; spiral sculpture 

Aperture Aperture of 
Height Diameter height width whorls 


6.2 mm. 

2.7 mm. 

2.3 mm. 

1.4 mm. 



5.8 mm. 

3.1 mm. 

2.0 mm. 

1.8 mm. 


(no. 3808) 

5.9 mm. 

2.8 mm. 

2.6 mm. 

1.7 mm. 


5.4 mm. 

2.6 mm. 

2.4 mm. 

1.5 mm. 


5.3 mm. 

3.1 mm. 

2.1 mm. 

1.8 mm. 


Comparisons. — Lymnaea turritella is smaller than most ex- 
amples of L. parva, but is somewhat larger than L. dalli; and 
slendered than either L. parva or L. dalli. The turreted whorls 
of L. turritella are quite unlike those of any small species of 
Lymnaea known to me. 

The name "turritella" is the diminutive form of the Latin 
word meaning tower, and is here applied in reference to the 
turreted spire of this fossil shell. 

Lymnaea macella, new species. Plate 5, fig. J 

Holotype. — Catalogue number 8804, Molluscan Collection, Uni- 
versity of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and para- 
types collected by A. B. Leonard and Alice E. Leonard. 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 

Oct.. 1952] 



Age, Pleistocene). Nine miles south, 7 miles west of Meade 
(SW 1/4 sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 29 W), Meade County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — Shell 7-9 mm. in height, rimate, with 5-6 moder- 
ately flat-sided whorls, the last greatly enlarged ; spire acute but 
not attenuate ; aperture narrowly ovate, with heavy varix within : 
aperture more than half as high as shell ; surface sculpture of 
intersecting spiral and vertical lines. 

Description of holoiype. — Shell small, rimate, 5I/2 whorls, 
only slightly convex, except the last, which is moderately in- 
flated ; suture impressed but not deeply ; nuclear whorl sub- 
planorbid ; aperture narrowly ovate and more than half as high 
as shell, acutely narrowed above, rounded below, outer lip of 
peristome with heavy varix, forming triangular ridge within, 
inner peristome nearly straight, slightly sinuous, reflected 
against preceding whorl, but not entirely closing umbilicus; 
nuclear whorl smooth, remaining whorls with numerous fine im- 
pressed undulating vertical lines, intersected by numerous fine, 
impressed, spiral lines. 

Comparisons. — Lymnaea macella is unlike L. parva (of simi- 
lar size) or the smaller L. dalli; L. macella seems to be related 
to L. parexilis, which it resembles in general form and in sur- 
face sculpture, but from which it differs in size, its total length 
being less than half that of L. parexilis, in heavier varix within 
the palatal portion of the peristome, and in larger, more nearly 

piauuruiLi liLiL 

icai wiiuri. 











8.5 mm. 

4.0 mm. 

5.0 mm. 

2.1 mm. 



9.1 mm. 

3.8 mm. 

4.6 mm. 

2.1 mm. 


(no. 3766) 

8.4 mm. 

3.5 mm. 

4.6 mm. 

1.9 mm. 


8.8 mm. 

3.7 mm. 

5.0 mm. 

2.2 mm. 


8.7 mm. 

4.0 mm. 

5.1 mm. 

2.1 mm. 


8.7 mm. 

3.9 mm. 

5.0 mm. 

2.0 mm. 


The name "macella" is derived from the Greek word meaning 
"a single-pointed pick-axe," and is here applied in reference 
to the pointed spire and heavy shell. 

Lymnaea parexilis, new species. Plate 5, fig. K 

Holotype. — Catalogue number 8805, Molluscan Collection, Uni- 
versity of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and para- 
types collected by A. B. Leonard and Alice E. Leonard. 



[Vol. 66 (2) 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Nine miles south, 7 miles west of Meade 
(SW 1/4 sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 29 W), Meade County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — Shell of medium size for the genus, of 6 (occa- 
sionally 7) whorls; slender in general form, with acute spire, 
nearly flat-sided whorls, and shallowly impressed suture; aper- 
ture elongate, narrow, its length less than that of spire ; palatal 
peristome thickened within, parietal portion reflected over 
columella, closing umbilicus. 

Descriptio7i of holotype. — Shell medium in size for the genus, 
elongate spiral in form; whorls 6 in number, nearly flatsided, 
oblique, gradually increasing in length; suture not deeply im- 
pressed; spire attenuate, acute, body whorl elongate, only 
slightly inflated; aperture narrowly ovate, narrowing above, 
slightly produced below, length slightly less than height of 
spire; peristome thickened within; palatal lip convex, simple, 
parietal lip nearly straight, reflected against preceding whorl, 
closing umbilicus ; 11/2 nuclear whorls smooth, surface sculpture 
on succeeding whorls of coarse, raised, vertical growth striae, 
with fine, impressed wrinkled, parallel lines between them ; fine, 
impressed, spiral lines intersect vertical lines, producing fabric- 
like surface. 

Comparisons. — ^The shell of Lymnaea parexilis is similar in 
general form to that of L. exilis, but is much smaller with a 
relatively more elongate aperture, and more intricate sculpture. 
Lymnaea parexilis is slenderer, generally smaller, and its whorls 
are more nearly flat-sided than those of L. palustris or L. 












18.2 mm. 

5.2 mm. 

8.8 mm. 

3.2 mm. 



20.3 mm. 

7.7 mm. 

9.4 mm. 

4.5 mm. 


(no. 3786) 

20.0 mm. 

6.4 mm. 

9.2 mm. 

3.7 mm. 


19.0 mm. 

7.0 mm. 

9.1 mm. 

3.2 mm. 


18.2 mm. 

5.2 mm. 

8.8 mm. 

3.2 mm. 


The name of this species is given because it superficially re- 
sembles Lymnaea exilis, to which it seems to be related. 

Plate 5, figs. D, E, F 
Molluscan Collection, 
University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and 
paratypes from type locality collected by C. W. Hibbard. 

Promenetus blancoensis, new species. 
Holotype. — Catalogue number 8802 

Oct., 1952] 



Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Seventeen miles south, 12 miles west of 
Meade (sec. 35, T. 34 S, R. 30 W), Meade County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — A small planorbid shell, greater diameter slightly 
less than 4 mm. ; ultra-dextral, broadly umbilicate, with 3-3^ 
gradually enlarging whorls, all visible above and below, aper- 
ture trianguloid, wider than high ; surface sculpture of fine, 
oblique, transverse striae ; spiral striae absent ; many, but not 
all, shells irregularly banded with shades of tan and brown 
(figs. D, E.). 

Description of holotype. — Shell small, planorbid, ultra-dextral, 
broadly umbilicate; spire sunken, all volutions visible above and 
below; 3-')4 whorls, gradually increasing in size, slightly convex 
above, but shouldered near umbilicus, flattened to slightly exca- 
vate below, body whorl with broad, shallow excavation near 
midline above and below, extending backward from peristome 
for length of one-half volution; aperture trianguloid, width 
greater than height; peristome thin, simple, terminations half 
encircling preceding whorl, thin callus across parietal wall; 
nuclear whorl smooth, remaining whorls with fine, transversely 
oblique striae, giving the surface a silky texture; spiral striae 
absent, shell irregularly banded with shades of tan and brown. 

Cor)iparisons. — Promenetus llancoensis resembles P. unihili- 
catellus, from which it differs in its smaller size, lesser number 
of whorls (always less than 4), non-striate nucleus, absence of 
spiral sculpture, and depressed spire. If the shell was, indeed, 
colored in life with alternate bands of pigment, as the fossil 
shell strongly suggests, this is remarkable since color patterns 

aiuuug piaiiui 

uius aif lai 













1.3 mm. 

3.9 mm. 

1.3 mm. 

1.4 mm. 



1.1 mm. 

3.9 mm. 

1.0 mm. 

1.5 mm. 


(no. 3804) 

1.1 mm. 

3.8 mm. 

1.0 mm. 

1.4 mm. 


1.2 mm. 

3.7 mm. 

1.1 mm. 

1.3 mm. 


1.1 mm. 

3.8 mm. 

1.0 mm. 

1.2 mm. 


The name of this species is derived from the name of the 
geological formation in which it has been found. 

Gyraulus enaulus, new species. Plate 5, figs. G, H, I 

Holotype. — Catalogue number 8803, MoUuscan Collection, Uni- 
versity of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Type and para- 
types from type locality collected by C. W. Hibbard. 



[Vol. 66 (2) 

Horizon and type locality. — Blanco Formation (Nebraskan 
Age, Pleistocene). Fifteen miles east of Liberal (center W line, 
sec. 36, T. 34 S, R 31 W), Seward County, Kansas. 

Diagnosis. — Shell of small size, approximately 5 mm. in di- 
ameter, planorbid, ultra-dextral, with slightly less than 4 whorls, 
rounded above, somewhat flattened below, and rapidly increas- 
ing in size ; aperture ovate, oblique ; periphery near base ; nu- 
clear whorl smooth to granular, and remaining whorls with 
coarse, obliquely transverse striae ; no spiral striae. 

Description of holotype. — Shell small, planorbid, spire slightly 
depressed, base excavate, without definite umbilicus ; 3% whorls, 
rapidly increasing in size to aperture, rounded above to periph- 
ery near base, slightly convex to flattened below; first 2 whorls 
of spire sunken, but all volutions visible above and below; base 
broadly excavate, no distinct umbilicus; aperture elongate- 
oval ; wider than high, oblique ; peristome thin, simple, oblique, 
produced above, terminations connected by callus across parietal 
wall; nuclear whorl smooth, remaining whorls coarsely and ob- 
liquely striate ; spiral striations absent. 

Comparisons. — Similar in general form to Gyraulus lahiatus 
but smaller, with fewer whorls and with coarse striae. Gyraulus 
enaulus differs from G. similaris by its coarser striae, subcari- 
nate periphery, and less rounded whorls. 

Diameter Aperture Aperture of 
Height (greater) height width -whorls 


1.4 mm. 

5.4 mm. 

1.4 mm. 

1.7 mm. 



1.5 mm. 

5.5 mm. 

1.4 mm. 

1.6 mm. 


(no. 3798) 

1.4 mm. 

5.6 mm. 

1.2 mm. 

1.6 mm. 


1.4 mm. 

5.7 mm. 

1.3 mm. 

1.6 mm. 


1.3 mm. 

5.6 mm. 

1.3 mm. 

1.6 mm. 


The name '^ enaulus" is from a Greek word meaning "a water 
course," and is used here in reference to the stream-laid sedi- 
ments in which these fossils occur. 

Baker (1938: 126) was the first to study mollusks from sedi- 
ments now included in the Blanco Formation. He described 
Carychium perexiguum, Menetus kansasensis, Strohilops sparsi- 
costa, and Vertigo hihhardi from materials sent to him by C. W. 
Hibbard. Because the stratigraphical relationships of the de- 
posits from which the shells came were not properly understood 
at that time, Baker thought these gastropods were of Tertiary 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 45 

Age, and commented that Carychium and Menetus had not pre- 
viously been reported from Tertiary horizons, at least in the 
Mississippi Valley. At the time that Franzen and Leonard 
(1947:338, 346) described Gastrocopta rexroadensis and G. 
paracristata from these sediments, the deposits had been placed 
in a provisional time zone, the Blanean (Elias et al., 1945: 270), 
designed to include beds and faunas younger than the algal 
limestone (Ogallala Formation: Pliocene) and older than beds 
of undoubted Pleistocene age (as understood at that time). It 
is now known that the sediments in question which include the 
silts and sands in the Blanco Formation, and from which a 
total of 13 species have been described, making the total known 
molluscan assemblage more than twice that number, belong in 
the Nebraskan Stage of the Pleistocene. Carychium and 
Menetus have not yet, to my knowledge, been recovered from 
undoubted Tertiary strata in the Mississippi Valley. 

References Cited 

Baker, Frank C. 1938. New land and freshwater Mollusca 
from the upper Pliocene of Kansas and a new species of 
Gyraulus from early Pleistocene strata. Nautilus, vol. 51, no. 
2, pp. 126-131. 

Franzen, Dorothea S., and Leonard, A. Byron. 1947. Fossil 
and living Pupillidae (Gastropoda-Pulmonata) in Kansas. 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 30, pp. 311-411, pis. 1-12, fig. 
1, 15 maps, 1 table. 

Frye, John C., Swineford, Ada. and Leonard, A. Byron. 1948. 
Correlation of Pleistocene deposits of the central Great Plains 
with the glacial section. Jour. Geol., vol. 56, pp. 501-525, 
pis. 1-2, 3 figs, in text, 2 tables. 

Frye, John C, and Leonard, A. Byron. 1951. Stratigraphy 
of the late Pleistocene loesses of Kansas. Jour. Geol., Vol. 
■ 59, no. 4, pp. 287-304, 2 pis., 5 figs, in text. 

Leonard, A. Byron. 1950. A Yarmouthian molluscan fauna 
in the midcontinent region of the United States. Univ. 
Kansas Paleo. Contrib., Mollusca, art. 3, pp. 1-48, pis. 1-6, 
figs. 1-4. 

Leonard, A. Byron. 1951. Stratigraphic zonation of the Peoria 
loess in Kansas. Jour. Geol., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 323-332, 1 pi., 
1 fig. in text. 

Leonard, A. Byron. 1952. Illinoian and Wisconsinan mol- 
luscan faunas in Kansas. Univ. Kansas Paleo Contrib., Mol- 
lusca, Art. 4, pp. 1-38, pis. 1-5. figs, in text 1-15. 

46 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 



C. S. Rafinesque, in 1820, Annals of Nature, page 10, described 
seven new species of slugs from the eastern United States. Be- 
cause these descriptions were so poor, only two of his names 
have been generally recognized. After giving his descriptions 
cosniderable study it seems that the other five species can be 
recognized. All of them as synonyms of well known species. 
The descriptions of these five species were reprinted in Henry 
A. Pilsbry, Land Mollusca of North America, vol. II, part 2, 
page 770. 

69. Philomycus quadrilus. This is undoubtedly P. carolini- 
anus (Bosc). The ''length over half an inch" indicates a young 
slug. The color "gray, back smooth, with four longitudinal 
rows of irregular black spots ' ' is the characteristic color pattern 
of very young carolinianiis. The habitat *'on the banks of the 
Hudson" indicates that he was describing the typical form of 
the flood-plains, rather than the upland P. carolinianus col- 
linus Hubricht. 

70. Philomycus oxyurus. This is Deroceras laeve (Miiller). 
The description is a very good one of that species as far as it 
goes, and there is no other native species that the description 
would fit. 

71. Philomycus fuscus. The length "one-fourth of an inch" 
indicates a very young slug. The only native slug with "tail 
compressed, acute" is Deroceras laeve. 

XVII. N. G-. EuMELus. This description is that of a sleeping 
(Slug with the mantle pulled over the head down to the smaller 
tentacles. The ends of the larger tentacles projecting from 
below the edge of the mantle, giving the appearance of "four 
tentacula almost in one row in front and cylindrical, nearly 
equal, the smallest pair between the larger ones." Eumelus 
belongs in the synonymy of Philomycus. 

73. Eumelus nelulosus. There is less certainty about the 
identity of this species than any of the others. All that one 
can tell from the description is that it is a spotted slug. It 
suggests Philomycus flexuolaris (Raf.), but the range "in Ohio 
and Kentucky ' ' is too far west for that species. It is probably 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 47 

Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc), or an upland form of that 
species without the two rows of black spots. More knowledge 
of the slugs of that region is needed to identify this species 
with certainty. 

74. Eumelus lividus. There can be no doubt about the 
identity of this species. Specimens were collected on west bluff, 
Frankfort, Franklin Co., Kentucky, which fit the description 
perfectly. The series collected is quite variable. Some speci- 
mens are a uniform "livid brown above," others show three 
longitudinal bands of a darker brown, others show varying 
degrees of intergradation to Philomycus carolinianus. One 
specimen is a uniform brown with two rows of black spots along 
the back. Such uniform brown slugs are found associated with 
Philomycus carolinianus over a wide range, from southern 
Michigan and central New York to western North Carolina and 
eastern Tennessee. They apparently represent a color phase in 
which the pigment is diffused instead of forming a definite 



In the early spring of 1952, the writer found several bleached 
worn shells of a Monadenia in the loose talus on the western 
face of Ironside Mountain, northern Trinity County, California. 
Several of the better preserved shells were compared with a 
series of the local complex of Monadenia fidelis. It was noted 
that the bleached shells had a much smaller and more open 
umbilicus than the typical forms from this general region. 
Finally in April 1952, living examples were discovered on the 
moss and in the forest duff that accumulated under trees on 
the more stable portions of the talus. The living adults are 
so different from any other of the coastal or interior coastal 
forms that a new species is indicated. Therefore the writer 
proposes the following name. 

Monadenia setosa, new species. 

A medium sized, depressed Monadenia ; spire, a low even cone 
of six and one-half whorls average, whorls rounded in adults, 

48 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

with a carina noted in the juveniles, but not as acute as other 
northwestern Monadeniae. The umbilicus is open, and averages 
one-tenth the major diameter of the shell, straight sided. Aper- 
ture ovate, somewhat depressed on the dorsal side. Peristome 
thin and hairlike, recurving slightly on only a few extreme 
adult specimens. The sculpture consists of a series of fine striae 
crossing the whorls at an angle of forty-five degrees. Perio- 
stractum dull, over entire surface, covered with small papillae, 
each of which has a short bristle protruding from the center. 
The papillae and bristles are on both the ventral and dorsal sur- 
faces, only being absent in the area around the columella. 
Coloration. Dorsally the snail is chestnut, with the sutures 
shaded into a dark chestnut. On the periphery there is a 
dark brown band about 2 mm. wide, below which is a band 
ranging from ochre to umber that is also 2 mm. in width. From 
this lighter band and covering the entire ventral surface the 
shell is a dark brown. All shells have the same pattern and 
color, being remarkably uniform for a Monadenia. 

The animal is longer and more slender than the animal of a 
Monadenia fidelis of like size, the feelers are also longer and 
more slender. Maculations are rod shaped and follow an even 
pattern on the contour of the animal, they are also larger and 
more pronounced than in a typical fidelis. The dorsal line is 
indistinct or absent in most specimens. The foot is a dead 
gray, maculations a livid grayish purple, with the interspacing 
areas a dark purple or black. 

Measurements : 

Max. Min. Dia. of 































































Holotype and Paratypes in the Talmadge Collection, at Wil- 
low Creek, California. Paratypes to be deposited in the collec- 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 49 

tion of the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, 
and in the collection of Allyn G. Smith at Berkeley, California. 

Type Locality : Swede Creek, a tributary to the Trinity River, 
northern Trinity County, California. 

Discussion : Ironside Mountain, a mass of Franciscan schist, 
is a broken ridge-like peak that rises abruptly from the Trinity 
River. This wall-like peak is broken in several places by chasm- 
like gorges, that contain small fast flowing streams. The slopes 
are footed by talus slopes, that in places have become stable 
enough to support a forest growth. This growth is the typical 
oak, fir and pine. Under this forest growth the usual moss 
and forest duff accumulates between and on the rocks. The 
first bleached shells were discovered on the deer trails that 
crossed the talus slides, and much time was spent working over 
this type of formation. The bleached shells gave no indication 
of the bristles, so again time was wasted looking for a more or 
less typical Monadenia fidelis. These bristles were also the 
cause of the snail not being found sooner. Mud, dust, and 
spider webs as well as bits of moss adhered to the short whiskers 
to such an extent that the living snail resembled a pebble or 
clod. The writer has noted this also on some of the local Vesperi- 
cola in the same area. Each shell collected represented a care- 
ful foot-by-foot search in the moss and duff under the trees. 

In color this snail resembles some of the darker forms of 
Monadenia fidelis, but does not have the variations of colors 
found in such a colon5^ The dorsal surface with the papillae 
and short bristles resembles somewhat the Monadenia infumata, 
but here again the design of the papillae is different and covers 
the entire shell. The design and shape of the papillae as well 
as the habitat resemble the M. churchi, but the size, thickness of 
shell, and bristles separate it immediately from this species. 
There is no other Monadenia in northwestern California that 
could be confused with this snail. It is distinct and may be 
separated in the field from any other species on sight. 

The name setosa is derived from the Latin for bristled or 
whiskered. The writer wishes to thank the California Academy 
of Sciences for the use of their collection of land mollusks for 
comparative work in running down certain forms. He also 



[Vol. 66 (2) 

wishes to thank Allyn G. Smith of Berkeley for guidance in 
working out the species. 
Willow Creek, California 



Although more than a century has passed since this species 
was described, nothing material has been added to the original 
observations of Couper and Haldeman. The writer's attention 
having been called to this neglected species, it was thought that 
the publication of some observations made over thirty years ago 
may not be considered out of place. ^ 

Ay*-! Ill/ 1 It 

Fig. 1. L. tenuipes. A, B, C, living animal. D, E, F, Tracings of figures 
of the shell. 

While it is still thought that "Amnicola'' tenuipes belongs 
to the mainly South American genus Littoridina, yet the differ- 
ence in the verge seems to call for a subgeneric distinction. 

Littoridina, type L. guadachaudii Souleyet (Ecuador). Verge 
having several short lateral appendages (which typically are 
divided or papillose at their ends) along its length on both sides; 
tapering to a point at the end. 

1 The following notes and figures are adapted from the MS. of an un- 
published work on New York mollusks. 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 51 

Littoridinops, n. subg., type L. tenuipes (Couper). Verge 
having groups of slender, simple processes at both ends only. 
Shell as in Littoridina. 

They are oviparous, thus differing from Lyrodes. 

References to L. tenuipes follow : 

Amnicola tenuipes Couper, 1844, in Haldeman's Monograph of 
the Freshwater Univalve Mollusca of the United States, part 
7, 4th page of cover. Haldeman, 1845, same work, part 8, 
p. 23, pi. 1, figs. 14. 

Bythinella tenuipes Couper, Binney, 1865, Land and Fresh- 
water Shells of N. A., Ill, p. 69 (copied from Haldeman). 

The shell is perforate, oblong-conic, thin, very glossy, light 
brown or yellowish-brown, composed of nearly 5 whorls, which 
are much less convex than usual in amnieolid shells ; the upper 
whorls are more convex than the last two. The suture is not 
deeply impressed, and often shows a margin below, due to 
transparence. The aperture is ovate, angular above. Peristome 
thin, appressed to the preceding whorl for a considerable dis- 
tance above the umbilicus. 

Length 3.75, diam. 2 mm. ; 5 whorls. 

Length 4.1, diam. 2.2 mm. ; 51^ whorls. 

Length 4.3, diam. 2.1 mm., aperture 1.6 mm. ; 5% whorls. 

Distribution : Lower Hudson Valley, New York, to Florida. 
Type locality, Hopeton (old name of a plantation on the Alta- 
maha River five miles above Darien, Georgia), in rice-field 

L. tenuipes differs from Fontigens and other amnieolids of 
the United States by its far less convex whorls and less im- 
pressed suture. The surface has an oily luster when clean, 
but it is often incrusted. 

The foot is longer and more slender than in Amnicola limosa, 
pale gray, lighter in front and near the tail; back a little 
darker gray. Rostrum very dark gray, black in some specimens 
when contracted. The tentacles are extremely long, the ends 
rather blunt, very pale gray with opaque white flecks, and 
sometimes a darker gray band near the ends. The anterior 
auricles of the foot are highly mobile, sometimes stretching out 
like tentacles. Eyes as in Amnicola. 

The verge is attached in the middle of the back. It is long, 
fleshy, gray, with a group of five long, white processes near the 



[Vol. 66 (2) 

base and about six long and several short ones near the distal 


The central tooth is rather long, with two basal denticles on 

each side, the outer one smaller. The outer marginal tooth has 

a very broad shaft. Formula of denticles „ „, 7, 20, 18. The 

denticles upon the outer marginal tooth are decidedly larger 
than in Fontigens nickliniana. In the figures the lateral teeth 
are shown detached and partially prostrate, the cusps fore- 
shortened. The radula figured is from one of Haldeman's 

B c 

Fig. 2. L. tenuipes. A, teeth. B, end of verge from below. C, head 
with verge. 

The animal is quite sprightly, moving rapidly and often 
whisking about. They crawled freely out of the water on the 
sides of a dish in which they were confined. They appear more 
animated than any other amnicolid snail I have kept alive. 
Females predominate; thirty-six were examined before finding 
the first male. The lot kept alive was from Chester River, 

The description of the shell is from one of Haldeman's speci- 
mens, drawn in fig. 1 f. Most other shells examined are 
"corneous" rather than light brown. Some of the New York 
specimens described below are not wholly typical, but those 
from Hackensack, N. J., agree perfectly with the types in shape. 
The largest is scarcely 4 mm. long. Everywhere the species is 
dimorphic, slender and stouter specimens occurring together. 
This is not a sexual difference in the lot opened. 

At Hastings-upon-Hudson Mr. Billups collected specimens at 
two stations which differ from those of other localities in various 
details, as follows. 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 53 

L. tenuipes large form. Fig. 1 d. The shell is larger than 
typical tenuipes, convexity of the earlier whorls conspicuous, 
whorls more numerous ; pale yellowish brown or corneous brown. 

Length 5.2, diam. 2.5 mm., length of aperture 2 mm. ; Qyo 

Length 5, diam. 2.6 mm. ; 6 whorls. 

L. tenuipes small form. Fig. 1 e. The shell is decidedly 
smaller than tenuipes, brown, glossy with the whorls a little 
more convex and the aperture somewhat wider than in tenuipes. 
Length 3, diam. 1.8 mm. ; 5 whorls. 

These smaller snails probably lived in a bog. They have a 
ferrous incrustation, while the larger form is almost clean, and 
doubtless came from another station. They are probably eco- 
logic varieties. 

Localities in the northern states from which specimens have 
been examined follow : 

New York : Hastings-upon-Hudson, "Westchester Co. (A. C. 
Billups). Piermont, Rockland Co. (Henry Fowler). 

New Jersey: Hackensack River, Hackensaek (A. H. Gardner). 

Delaware: Bohemia (Haldeman). Augustina Park, in a 
brackish ditch (John A. Allen). 

Maryland: Banks of Chester River, Queen Anne Co., op- 
posite Chestertown (E. G. Vanatta). Chesapeake Bay at Bet- 
terton, under stones at low water, with Mytilopsis leucopliaeata 
and Goniobasis virginica, in slightly (and variably) brackish 
water (Pilsbry).- 

It has also been reported, with a mark of doubt, from small 
lakes south of Mohawk, N. Y. (Lewis, Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1860, 
p. 18), but the identification was evidently erroneous, as the 
name was omitted from later lists by the same author. De- 
Camp's record of tenuipes from Michigan has been considered 
an incorrect identification by later Michigan malacologists. An 
old (1904) record of tenuipes var. from Eve's Pond, Bermuda 
(Nautilus 17:126) needs verification. 

In part of the stations recorded above, the water is more or 
less brackish, at least during part of the year. In Maryland Mr. 

- The salinity was not tested when the author was there many years 
ago, but the blue crab was abundant (and delicious!), and small barnacles 
were seen on piles. 

54 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

Vanatta found it abundant on sandy, grassy inter-tidal shores 
of Chester River, where the water is somewhat brackish, living 
on the slimy tidal debris, out of water and exposed to the sun 
at low tide. Some of the South American Littoridinas are said 
to live in both fresh and brackish water. 

At Piermont, N. Y., Henry Fowler found L. tenuipes in a 
small, marshy stream flowing into the Hudson, but in fresh 
water, above tidal influence, and associated with Planorhula and 
purely fresh water crustaceans. 



Comparatively little study has been made of the land snails 
of New Jersey. The few papers published on the subject have 
been limited to records from specific localities in the state and, 
in one instance, a county. I do not know of any publication 
devoted to the land snails of the entire state. 

A striking feature of the New Jersey land snail fauna is the 
presence of typically northern species living in association with 
typically southern species. This anomalous combination of 
species can be explained by the fact that New Jersey is located 
on the central part of the Atlantic coast where some northern 
species approach the southern limit of their distribution and 
some southern species reach the northern limit of their dis- 
tribution. Certain species belonging to these diverse elements 
can be found together only in this state. Botanists have found 
that this condition is even more pronounced in the flora of the 
state. It is discussed at length in "The Plants of Southern 
New Jersey" by Witmer Stone (N. J. State Museum Report for 
1910, pt. 2, pp. 47-99). 

A line of island beaches, separated from each other by ocean 
inlets and from the upland by broad salt marshes and a system 
of waterways, extends along the New Jersey coast from Manas- 
quan Inlet south to Cape May forming a barrier between the 
ocean and the mainland. Species representing the northern and 
southern faunas are generally found together on these beaches 
bordering the ocean and in isolated thickets and small wooded 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 55 

areas in the salt marshes behind the beaches rather than in the 
interior of the state. Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry collected such 
northern species as Pupilla muscorum and Cionella liibrica in 
copses in the salt marshes behind Ventnor, just south of Atlantic 
City, in 1911. "With them he found Vallonia perspectiva, a 
southern species never before reported from New Jersey or any 
other point on the Atlantic coastal plain (Nautilus 25(3) :35). 
The particular copses where these specimens were collected 
were destroyed when the salt marshes here were filled in and 
leveled for building construction. The native vegetation and 
animal life have met a similar fate wherever a seashore resort 
has been developed on the barrier beaches. 

Probably new species of land snails are to be found in New 
Jersey but trying to discover a new species here is like looking 
for the proverbial needle in the haystack. To my knowledge, 
no new species of land snail has been found in the state since 
Dr. Pilsbry discovered Qiiickella vagans, one of the Succineidae, 
at Cape May Point in August, 1898 (Nautlius 14(7) : 74). Most 
of the land snails that have been found in New Jersey are widely 
distributed outside of the state. Consequently, even when a 
species is found that is a new record for the state, almost cer- 
tainly the species will not be new to science. It will be a species 
that has already been discovered somewhere else. Collectors 
whose purpose is the discovery of new species can do their 
collecting in many other states with the assurance that their 
chance of success will be far better than it would be in New 

Seventy-four species and subspecies of land snails, native and 
introduced, are listed in the checklist. This is considerably 
less than the number of species and subspecies collected in the 
six states tabulated below in which comprehensive studies have 
been undertaken. 











F. C. Baker 


















56 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

This discrepancy in number of different species can be at- 
tributed in part to the relatively small amount of collecting 
that has been done in New Jersey compared to that done in 
these other states. The land snail collection at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, which served as the basis 
for this checklist, contained very few records from Essex, Hud- 
son, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, Salem, and 
Somerset Counties, and no records at all from Passaic and Union 
Counties. Obviously, this is due to the incompleteness of the 
collection rather than to the fact that few or no snails inhabit 
these counties. However, even with a great deal more collecting, 
the number of different species of land snails found in New 
Jersey probably would not equal the totals from these other 
states where conditions are, on the whole, more favorable for 
their existence. 

The checklist gives the distribution of species and subspecies 
in New Jersey by counties. The land snail Triodopsis alboldbris 
maritima, a sand dune form no longer regarded as a valid sub- 
species by Dr. Pilsbry (Land MoUusca of North America, vol. 
1, pt, 2, p. 835), has been retained in the checklist as a matter 
of record. Introduced species in the checklist include : Cecili- 
oides aperta, Oxychilus cellarium, Oxychilus draparnaldi, Oxy- 
cJiilus alliarium, Triodopsis fosteri, and Cepaea nemoralis. Val- 
lonia, pulckella, Vallonia excentrica, and Vallonia costata are 
indigenous both to Europe and North America. Specimens of 
these species of Vallonia collected in New Jersey are presumably 
native unless there is evidence to the contrary. 

Information about the slugs inhabiting New Jersey is inade- 
quate for a detailed report on their distribution, so they have 
been omitted from the checklist. However, the following species 
and subspecies appear to be fairly common and widespread in 
the state : Limax maximus, Limax flavus, Deroceras reticulatum, 
Deroceras laeve, Philomycus carolinianus and Philomycus caro- 
linianus flexuolaris. The first three are of European origin; 
Deroceras laeve is considered to be indigenous both to Europe 
and North America; and the last two are native to North 

All species and subspecies included in the checklist are de- 
scribed and illustrated in ''Land Mollusea of North America" 

Oct., 1952] 



Distribution for New Jersey by Counties 


Cepaea nemoralis 
Stenotrema hirsutum 
Stenotrema fraternum 
Me3 0don thyroldus 
Triodopsis tridentata 
T. tridentata juxtldens 
Triodopsis fallax 
Triodopsis notata 
Triodopsis fosterl 
Triodopsis albolabrls 
T. albolabrls maritima 
Cecilioides aperta 
Haplotrema concavum 
Euconulus fulvus 
Euconulus Cher sinus 
Guppya sterkil 
Oxychilus cellarlum 
Oxychilus draparnaldl 
Oxychilus alliarium 
Retinella electrlna 
Retlnella burringtoni 
Retinella rhoadsl 
Retinella indentata 
Mesomphlx inornatus 
Mesomphlx cupreus 
Hawaila minuscula 
H. minuscula alachuana 
Ventridens suppressus 
Ventridens ligera 
Zonitoldes arboreus 
Striatura exigua 
Strlatura meridlonalls 
Striatura milixim 
Angulsplra altemata 
A. altemata fergusoni 
Discus cronkhitei 
D. c catskillensls 
Helicodiscus parallelus 
Hellcodiscus slngleyanus 
H. slngleyanus inermis 
Punctiim mlnutisslmum 
Pxmctujn vltreum 
Oxyloma decampi gouldl 
Oxyloma effusa 
Oxyloma effusa subeffusa 

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Succlnea ovalia 
Succinea aurea 
Succlnea avara 
Quickella vagans 
Strobilops labyrinthica 
Strobilops affinls 
Strobilops aenea 
Gastrocopta armifera 
Gastrocopta contracta 
Gastrocopta pentodon 
Gastrocopta tappaniana 
Gastrocopta corticaria 
G. pellucida hordeacella 
Pupoides albilabris 
Pupilla muscorum 
Vertigo milium 
Vertigo morsel 
Vertigo ovata 
Vertigo pygmaea 
Vertigo tridentata 
Vertigo gouldl 
Columella edentula 
Vallonia pulchella 
Vallonia excentrlca 
Vallonia costata 
Vallonia perspectlva 
Clonella lubrica 
Carychi\un exiguum 
Carychium exile 




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by Dr. Pilsbry, which also gives numerous locality records for 
New Jersej'. The nomenclature and systematic arrangement of 
species used in that work have been followed here. 


Alexander, Robert C. 1947. Report on the land mollusks of 

Cape May, N. J. Nautilus 60(3) : 97-100 and 61(1) : 4-6. 
. 1952. Introduced species of land snails in New Jersey. 

Nautilus 65(4): 132. 
Fox, William J. 1891. List of mollusca of Gloucester County, 

N. J. Nautilus 4(10) : 113-115. 
Marshall, William B. 1892. Littoral land shells of New 

Jersey. Nautilus 6(2) : 19. 
Pilsbry, Henry A. 1892. Littoral land shells of New Jersey. 

Nautilus 5(12) : 141-142. 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 59 

. 1900. Land snails of Cape May, New Jersey. Nautilus 

14(7) : 73-75. 

1911. Land shells of Atlantic City, New Jersey, 

Nautilus 25(3) : 34-35. 

Kapp, William F., Jr., and Janet L. C. Rapp. 1945. Ecologi- 
cal notes on the Gastropoda of the Great Swamp (New Jersey) . 
Nautilus 58(4) : 124-125. 

ToBLEMAN, Fred. 1919. Collecting in the vicinity of Newark, 
New Jersey. Nautilus 33(2) : 59-61. 

Vanatta, E. G. 1919. Land shells of Laurel Springs, New 
Jersey. Nautilus 33(2) : 67-68. 

. 1926. Land shells from around Foul Rift, Delaware 

River (and Scott's Mountain, Warren County, N. J.). Naut- 
ilus 40(2): 47-48. 



In publishing his " Illustriertes Conchylienbuch, " W. Kobelt 
hoped to place into the hands of the average collector an illus- 
strated handbook that would give him a guide to arranging his 
collection, as well as an aid in identifying the commoner shells 
in his possession. He also intended it to be of use to the more 
serious student by including, with brief descriptions, all the im- 
portant genera and subgenera of mollusks, which he illustrated 
by depicting on 112 plates 2,354 species, all the very good figures 
being drawn by his own hand. Besides those species figured 
others are mentioned and briefly diagnosed in the text. 

The principal importance of Kobelt 's work today lies in the 
fact that he cited types for many, though not all, of the genera 
and subgenera mentioned in his handbook. These type designa- 
tions have commonly been overlooked and many of them antedate 
those of Cossmann, Harris, and others. 

Neither of the two volumes into which this work is divided 
bears a date on the titlepage. In fact, the only date given 
anywhere is that of the introduction, where March 1878 is cited. 
Because of its importance as a source of type designations, it 
is necessary to establish the publication dates of the different 

* Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

60 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

parts of this work. These dates, as far as I have been able to 
discover, are those given in the following table. Most of this 
information was obtained from the pages of the Nachrichtsblatt 
der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft. The last column 
lists the monthly number of the Nachrichtsblatt in which the 
part was reviewed (usually only briefly noted). 



Volume 1 







Nov. 1876 1 





Nov.-Dec. 1877 ^ 





Feb .-March 1878 





May 1878 


I-XVI, 105-144 


Volume 2 


May 1878 





June-July 1879 




1879 3 





Sept.-Oct. 1880 





April 1881 





Oct. 1881 * 


Randolph-Macon College 

Hanover County, situated just east of the center of Virginia, 
has an area of 471 square miles. Its extreme length from east 
to west is approximately 37 miles, 12 miles of which lie within 
the Piedmont Plateau. The county comprises two main physio- 
graphic divisions : the Piedmont Plateau in the western half, 
and the Coastal Plain in the eastern. The Coastal Plain division 
has an altitude of about 250 feet on the west and 175 feet on the 
east. The Piedmont Plateau division slopes slightly from east 
to west, having a drop of 50 to 100 feet in elevation. Hanover 

1 Noted as received by library of society in issue of Jan. 1877. 

2 Noted as received by library of society in issue of August 1877. 

3 Date obtained from Zoological Record for 1879. 

4 Publisher 's announcement of completion and availability of work in 
issue of June 1881. 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 61 

County is well drained by the North Anna, Little, New Found, 
Pamunkey, Chiekahominy, and South Anna Rivers. Seven soil 
types are represented by the collections, the most common being 
Meadow, Norfolk Sandy Loam, and Leonardtown Loam. 

Very little has been published on the molluscan fauna of 
Virginia and only one species of mollusk has been recorded in 
the literature from Hanover County, this being Helisoma anceps 
(Menke), a fresh-water gastropod, reported by F. C. Baker 
in 1945 in his monograph Molluscan Family Planorhidae. Dr. 
Henry A. Pilsbry does not mention Hanover County in his 
monumental Land Mollusca of North America. 

The Mollusca are represented in Hanover County by the 
Classes Gastropoda (snails, slugs, and limpets) and Pelecypoda 
(mussels and pillclams), each of which is represented by two 
orders. Since January, 1951 fifty collections from twenty-two 
localities have been made. Forty-four species and subspecies 
representing seventeen families have been determined. 

The occurrence of moUusks in this county seems to depend 
not on type of soil or elevation but on access to calcium-bearing 
compounds, moisture, and cover. 

Systematic Catalogue of Species 
Class Gastropoda 


Campeloyna decisum (SajO 132 specimens from 4 stations 

Ceriphasia virginica (Gmelin) 233, 3 stations 

Helisoma anceps (Menke) 62, 3 stations 
Gyraulus hirsutiis (Gould) 78, 4 stations 

Pseudosuccinea colufnella (Say) 74, 3 stations 


Ferrissia kirklandi (Walker) ^ 26, 1 station 
Ferrissia shimekii (Pilsbry) - 10, 2 stations 


Physa heterostrophia (Say) 31, 5 stations 
Physa Integra (Haldeman) 37, 3 stations 

1 First report of occurrence in Virginia, except manuscript of Dr. P. R, 

2 First report of occurrence in Virginia. 

62 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 


Gastrocopta armifera (Say) 52, 1 station 

Gastrocopta contract a (Say) 2, 1 station 

Gastrocopta procera mcclungi (Hanna and Johnson) 4, 1 station 

Pupoides albilahris (Adams) 2, 1 station 

Vertigo ovata (Say) 3, 1 station 


Anguispira alternata angulata (Ferussac) 7, 3 stations 
Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) 61, 8 stations 

Vallonia excentrica (Sterki) 17, 1 station 

Philomycus caroUnianus (Bosc) 23, 5 stations 

Deroceras laeve (Miiller) 21, 2 stations 
Limax margmatus (Miiller) 12, 2 stations 
Milax gagates (Draparnaud) 8, 1 station 

Euconulus chersiniis (Say) 4, 2 stations 
Euconulus fulvus (Miiller) 7, 1 station 
Hawaiia minuscula (Binney) 11, 2 stations 
Retinella indentata (Say) 20, 4 stations 

Retinella indentata paucilirata (Morelet) 24, 6 stations 

Striatura milium (Morse) 2, 1 station 

Ventridens ligera (Say) 5, 3 stations 

Ventridens gularis theloides (Pilsbry) ^ 62, 6 stations 

Zonitoides arhoresus (Sav) 148, 9 stations 

Strohilops aenea (Pilsbry) 18, 2 stations 
Strohilops lahrynthica (Say) 8, 2 stations 

Haplotrema concavum (Say) 17, 6 stations 

Mesodon thyroidus (Say) 37, 6 stations 
Stenotrema hirsutum (Say) 9, 4 stations 
Triodopsis alholahris (Say) 26, 4 stations 
Triodopsis fallax (Say) 181, 5 stations 

Triodopsis tridentata juxtidens (Pilsbry) 13, 4 stations 

Class Pelecypoda 

Musculium rosaceum (Prime) ^ 133, stations 
Pisidium strengi (Sterki) 15, 1 station 

3 I was unable to find Ventridens cerinoides, the Coastal Plain form, or 
F. suppressus, the Piedmont form, but only the intermediate V. gnlaris 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 63 

Pisidium virginicum (Gmelin) 39, 2 stations 
Sphaermm simile (Say) 17, 2 stations 

Elliptio complanaius (Dill-wyn) 37, 3 stations 
Elliptio fisherianiis (Lea) 9, 3 stations 


Baker, Frank Collins, 1928 : The fresh water mollusca of Wis- 
consin, pts. 1 and 2, Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters, 1002 pp. 

, 1939: Fieldbook of Illinois land snails, Manual 2, Nat. 

Hist. Surv. Div. Dept. Regs, and Ed., Illinois, 166 pp. 
-, 1945 : Molluscan Family Planorbidae, Univ. Chicago Press. 

PiLSBRY, Henry A., 1939-48 : Land mollusca of North America, 
etc., vols. 1 and 2, Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 2006 pp. plus xxvi. 



With one exception, all the Unionidae and Mutelidae described 
by Lamarck are to be found in his famous Histoire Naturelle 
des Animaux sans Vertebres. In Lamarck's time there was no 
ban upon a curator having a private cabinet ; hence we find 
Lamarck referring to his own collection and that of the Paris 
Museum. Upon the death of Lamarck, his private collection 
was sold to Prince Massena. It was later purchased by Baron 
B. Delessert who illustrated many of the types in a sumptuous 
publication. Later the Delessert collection became the property 
of the Musee d 'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve where it is still 
located. The remainder of the material on which Lamarck 
worked is, for the most part, in the Musee National d 'Histoire 
Naturelle in Paris. Some few species were described from speci- 
mens in other cabinets. 

In both museums, Lamarck's collection is kept separate from 
the main collection, thus facilitating its study. The specimens 
are mounted on cardboard plaques, generally with Lamarck's 
original label on the back. An example of the type of mount 
can be seen in Archives du Museum National d 'Histoire Natu- 
relle [Paris] 1930, Series 6, 6, Plate following p. 62. 

64 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

Most of the species are known only from a single example. 
Where there were paratypes, these have been noted. In some 
cases there are examples in both museums. Lamarck sometimes 
refers to figures in the Encyclopedic Methodique of Bruguiere 
but in none of the observed cases was his specimen the one 
figured in this work. 

My thanks are due to Drs. G. Mermod in Geneva and Dr. 
G. Ranson in Paris who have shown me every kindness and aid 
in repeated visits to their institutions to ascertain the where- 
abouts of the various types. Dr. Mermod has begun a careful 
illustrated study of the Lamarck types in the Musee de 
Geneve, and we hope that this study will help him as well as 
others who are interested in Lamarck's types. Finally thanks 
are extended to Mr. W. J. Clench of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology for his ever willing aid and suggestions. 

Literature Cited 

Delessert, B. 1841. Recueil de Coquilles Decrites par La- 
marck dans son Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres 
et non encore Figurees, Paris. 

Encyclopedic Methodique : Bruguiere. 1797. Histoire Naturelle 
des Vers, Coquilles, Mollusques et Polypiers, 2, Livr. 2 
[Plates], Paris. 

Lamarck, J. B. P. M. de. 1801. [An. IX] Sj-steme des Animaux 
sans Vertebres, Paris. 

. 1819, Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres, 

6, Part 1, Paris. 

Simpson, C. T. 1914. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naiades, 
or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels. Parts I-III, pp. 11, 1950, 
Bryant Walker, Detroit, Michigan. 

The Unionidae and Mutelidae described by Lamarck, including 
their present synonymy. 

angiista, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 80, No. 42 (Habite 

. . .). Holotype in the Paris Museum. Consists of one valve. 

Length 61 mm. Is Unio pictorum L. 
anodontina, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 80, No. 47 (Habite 

dans la Virginie). Holotype in the Geneva Museum. Length 

60 mm. Is LameUidens marginalis Lamarck. 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 65 

australis, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 80, No. 46 (Habite 
a la Nouvelle Hollande [rapporte par Perouse et Lesueur]). 
Holotype in the Paris Museum. Length 55 mm. ; also one 
Paratype. Length 48 mm. Is Hyridunio australis Lamarck, 
see Iredale, 1934, Australian Zoologist 8, Pt. 1, p. 69. 

avicularis, Hyria: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 83, No. 1 (Habite 
. . .) 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 12, fig. 6. Figured holotype 
in the Geneva Museum. Length 110 mm. Is Prisodon oMiquus 

brevialis, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 73, No. 14 (Habite 
a L'Isle de France, M. Mathieu, Cabinet de M. Valenciennes). 
Holotype in the Paris Museum. Consists of one valve. Length 
63 mm. Is Vnio litt oralis Lamarck. 

carinifera, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 74, No. 16 (Habite 
la riviere Hudson de I'etat de New- York, Cabinet de M. 
Valenciennes). Holotype in the Paris Museum. Length 52 
mm. Is Elliptio complanatus Solander. 

clava, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 74, No. 78 (Habite dans 
le lac Erie, Michaud fils). Should be in the Paris Museum, 
but could not be located. Is Pleurohema clava Lamarck, see 
Ortmann and Walker, 1922, Occ. Papers, Mus. Zool. Univ. of 
Michigan, No. 112, p. 25. 

coarctata, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 73, No. 11 (Habite la 
riviere d 'Hudson, Cabinet de M. Valenciennes). 1 Cotype in 
the Paris Museum. Length 88 mm. One Cotype in the 
Geneva Museum. Length 78 mm. Lamarck gives no measure- 
ments in the original description. Is Elliptio complanatus 

corrugata, Hyria: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 82, No. 2 (Habite 
. . .). Lamarck refers to Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 247, fig. 
2, a, b. Type in the Geneva Museum. Length 70 mm. La- 
marck gives no measurements in the original description. Is 
Hyria corrugata Lamarck. 

crassidens, Vnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 71, No. 3 (Habite 
I'Amerique septentrionale, dans le Mississippi, I'Ohio, et 
plusieurs lacs). Lamarck describes three shells and gives a 
measurement of 105 mm. for the type. This specimen could 
not be located. A polished specimen of lot (a) is in the 
Geneva Museum. It is from Mississippi. Lot (b) from Lake 

66 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

Erie consists of one specimen measuring 66 mm. in length in 
the Paris Museum, and one in the Geneva Museum measuring 
77 mm. Lot (c) could not be located. Is Elliptio crassidens 
Lamarck, see Ortmann and Walker, 1922, Occ. Papers, Mus. 
Zool. Univ. of Michigan, No. 112, p. 27. 

crispata, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 86, No. 7 (Habite 
. . . les regions australes? Du voyage de Baudin). Lamarck 
refers to Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 203, fig. 3, a, b. Holotype 
in the Geneva Museum. Length 51 mm. There is also a 
smaller paratype. There is another small paratype in the 
Paris Museum. Is Glabaris crispatus Bruguiere. 

delodonta, JJnio: 1819, An, sans Vert. 6, p. 77, No. 29 (Habite 
. . .). 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 12, fig, 7. The figured 
type is in the Geneva Museum, It measures 80 mm. in length. 
Lamarck gives the measurement as 76 mm. in the original 
description. Is Diplodon lacteolus Lea, see Simpson 1914, Des. 
Cat. Naiades 3, p. 1227. 

depressa, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6; p. 79, No. 38 (Habite 
dans les rivieres de la Nouvelle Hollande), 1841, Delessert, 
Rec. Coq. pi. 12, fig. 5, Two paratypes in the Geneva Museum. 
The largest, measuring 38 mm., was figured by Delessert. 
The holotype Lamarck refers to as measuring 52 mm. in length 
is in the Paris Museum. In the Paris Museum is also a plaque 
on which are glued three additional specimens. All are larger 
than the specimen figured by Delessert, Is Bugoshyria de- 
pressa Lamarck, see Iredale, 1934, Australian Zoologist 8, pt. 
1, p, 70. 

elongata, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 70, No. 2 (Habite dans 
les rivieres de I'Angleterre, et probablement du nord de 
I'Europe). Two cotypes in the Paris Museum. Lamarck gives 
no measurements. The largest specimen measures 133 mm. 
in length. Is Margaritana margaritifera Linn. 

exotica, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 71, No. 12 (Habite 
. , , les rivieres de I'lnde?), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 13, 
fig. 1. Holotype in the Geneva Museum. Length 148 mm. 
Delessert 's figure is somewhat reduced. One paratype in the 
Paris Museum with the label, "de I'Amerique du Sud achete 
de la vente de M. Faujas St. Frond." It measures 150 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 67 

mm. in length. Is Anodontites trapesialis var. exotica La- 

exotica, Iridina: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 89, No. 1 (Habite 
. . . les rivieres des elimats chauds). Lamarck refers to 
Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 204, fig. 1, a, b. Holotype is in the 
Geneva Museum. Length 138 mm. Is Iridina exotica La- 

fragilis, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 85, No. 4 (Habite 
les Lacs de Terre-Neuve, M. Lapylaie), 1841, Delessert, Rec. 
Coq. pi. 13, fig. 2. Figured holotype in the Geneva Museum. 
Length 68 mm. There is also a single valve of a smaller 
specimen. There are two additional paratypes in the Paris 
Museum. Is a valid species and not a synonym of Anodonta 
marginata Say. 

{To he continued) 


On August twentieth, 1952, eighty members and guests of the 
American Malacological Union gathered at the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the occasion be- 
ing the eighteenth annual meeting of the organization. It was 
the largest group ever to assemble for this yearly event, a fact 
which bears testimony to the ever-mounting public interest in 

Mr. William J. Clench, curator of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, and Miss Ruth D. Turner, his able assistant, figuratively 
spread the welcome mat; indeed, "Welcome!" was the keynote 
of a most enjoyable three-day convention. Registration and all 
lecture sessions took place in the geology lecture hall, located on 
the first floor of the huge Agassiz Museum (of which the M. C. Z. 
is a component part) while the social events were held in the 
Mount Vernon room of the Commander Hotel, the official head- 
quarters hotel of the convention. 

The first of these was the annual dinner on the opening day, 
August 20th. For this occasion the tables bore bouquets of 

68 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

garden flowers in vases of shells, and the place cards were printed 
with an amusing snail figure made from the acutal plate used 
to illustrate A. Binney's "Terrestrial Air-breathing Mollusks of 
the United States," Vol. 1, p. 83, 1851. Following the dinner, 
Dr. Richard Howard, Professor of Botany at Harvard Uni- 
versity, spoke on "Jungle Housekeeping," an entertaining lec- 
ture illustrated by colored slides. 

The following papers were read on Wednesday afternoon and 
at the Thursday morning session : ' ' Distribution of IMollusks in 
the Gulf of Mexico," Thomas E. Pulley; "A Shell Collector in 
Tobago," Richard W. Foster; "New Federal Regulations on 
Importing Mollusks," R. Tucker Abbott; "New England Mala- 
eologists, " Ruth D. Turner; "The Nudibranchs of New Eng- 
land," George M. Moore, "Some New Records for Naiades 
from Eastern North America," Herbert D. Athearn; "The 
Family Clausiliidae in "West Africa," Joseph C. Bequaert; "The 
Ecology and Distribution of Lymnaea (Bulimnea) megasoma 
in Michigan, ' ' Henry van der Schalie ; ' ' Opportunities in Medi- 
cal Malacology," R. Tucker Abbott; "The- Buffalo Meeting," 
Margaret C. Teskey. 

The business meeting opened the Thursday afternoon session, 
and the following officers were elected : 

President, Dr. A. Byron Leonard 
Vice-president, Dr. Joseph C. Bequaert 
Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Margaret C. Teskey 
Councilors-at-large, Mr. R. Tucker Abbott, Dr. Carlos G. 
Aguayo, Miss Ruth E. Coats, Miss Ruth D. Turner 

It was announced that provision has been made whereby life 
membership may be purchased for the sum of $25. A resolu- 
tion to change the name of the American Malacological Union 
to American Malacological Society was tabled until the next 
annual meeting. 

These papers on Thursday afternoon closed the academic por- 
tion of the convention: " Trans-Panamic Distribution of the 
Mactridae," J. Lockwood Chamberlin; "Studies on the Family 
Planorbidae, " Emile Abdel-Malek; "Taxonomy in Modern 
Biology," William J. Clench; "Aerial Orientation in Acha- 
tina," J. Lockwood Chamberlin; "Using Sea Shells as Occupa- 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 69 

tional Therapy Material in Mental Hospitals," Merrill Moore; 
"The William F. Clapp Laboratories," Ruth D. Turner. 

At 6 :00 Thursday evening the delegates were entertained by 
General Frank R. Sehwengel and Retiring President Jeanne S. 
Schwengel at a cocktail and buffet supper party. Dull care 
was checked at the door, and the affair was thoroughly enjoyed. 

The Friday field trip was the concluding feature of one of the 
most successful meetings the A.M.U. has ever enjoyed. Several 
private cars made the thirty-five mile trip to the William F. 
Clapp Marine Laboratory at Duxbury, Mass., where visitors 
were conducted through this unique establishment by members 
of the staff. Much of the research carried on is concerned with 
boring and fouling mollusks, and conclusions arrived at in this 
place are reported and acted upon around the world. 

Following a picnic lunch, the party split according to indi- 
vidual desires; one group paid a brief visit to the marine bio- 
logical station at Woods Hole, another departed to collect 
Unionidae at a nearbj' fresh water pond, while j^et a third 
elected to ''comb" at Duxbury Beach. 

The place of the 1953 meeting has not as yet been decided 
upon, but will be announced in the report bulletin. 

Margaret C. Teskey, Secretary 


Pecten (Plagioctenium) gibbus portusregii, new name. — 
Leo G. Hertlein, of the California Academy of Sciences, has just 
informed me that the term carolinensis, proposed for a new sub- 
species of Pectinidae, Nautilus, Vol. 66 (1), p. 17, is preoccupied, 
Conrad having described Pecten carolinensis (Eocene of North 
Carolina) in 1875. Therefore the new subspecies has been desig- 
nated Pecten {Plagioctenium) gihhus portusregii, after the type 
locality. Port Royal, South Carolina. The holotype 'has just 
been deposited in the United States National Museum. — Gilbert 


tanensis Bartsch, originally described from Mujeres Island, 
Yucatan, and later reported by Mr. R. J. Drake from Boquillas, 
northern Coahuila, was collected by Mr. C. D. Orchard three 

70 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

miles southeast of Hot Springs, International Park, Brewster 
Co., Texas. The specimens appear to be quite typical. Two are 
shown in Plate 6, fig. 1 (in January number). 

It is a smooth shell except for riblets on the last whorl, which 
is very shortly free in front. The aperture is nearly circular, 
with a reflected peristome. There is a columellar lamella within 
the penult whorl. The length of the Texan specimens is from 
16.5 mm. with 12 whorls to 19.3 mm. with 12% whorls. 

The original locality assigned was doubtless owing to an 
erroneous label as Mr. Drake has indicated. — H. A. P. 

Notes on Fauxulus agulhasensis. — Where they were found 
at Cape L'Agulhas was halfway up the hill overlooking the sea, 
just outside the village. The ground is clayey mountain soil. 
They were picked off small bushes. Although it appears that a 
water sloot is in the immediate vicinity, this sloot was com- 
pletely dry, being in the heart of summer when we were down 
there on holiday. They were in a small colony by themselves. 
We hunted high and low for others but could only find the few 
that we gathered in, some dead and others alive. There was no 
Fauxulus capensis seen in the immediate vicinitj^, although they 
are abundantly found at Cape L'Agulhas. — Letter to B. B. 
Baker from D. W. J. Ackermann. 

A further note on the shells op Pyramid Lake. — In 
Nautilus 66 : 16 f . I adduced certain ideas that tended to ques- 
tion the validity of the newly named Pyrgulopsis nevadensis 
paiutica Baily & Baily and Physa lordi zomos Baily & Baily. 
However, under the new rule of the International Commission 
of August 1948 (discussed by Abbott in Nautilus 64:103), a 
place has been made for certain infra-subspecific names, among 
which the Baily & Baily names, the former perhaps more clearly 
than the latter, might gain validity. But objection must be 
taken to putting the new trivial names in the third position in 
the species names, since this position must be reserved for valid 
subspecific names only (cf. Richter : "Einfiihrung in die zoo- 
logische Nomenklatur, " Frankfurt a.M. 1948, pp. 102-103). 
Hence it might be possible to call these new forms Pyrgulopsis 
nevadensis nevadensis paiutica and Physa lordi lordi zomos, 
even though the use of the subspecific trivial name in this case 
would not be entirely unambiguous. It would appear that the 

Oct., 1952] THE NAUTILUS 71 

present observation poses the question of the proper treatment 
for infra-subspecific names if these are to be attached to species 
that contain no subspecies. The suggestion given above might 
be one answer. — Morris K. Jacobson. 

"LiGUUs PiCTUS Ree\^" not extinct. — Tree snails of the 
genus Liguus are known for their ability to arise phoenix-like 
from the ashes of hammocks in which they have apparently been 
exterminated, but the discovery of a living specimen of Liguus 
fasciatus solidus color form pictus Reeve on Big Pine Key, 
Florida seems incredible. This form has been considered ex- 
tinct for nearly fift}^ years. Previous records from Big Pine 
Key were apparently based on dead shells found on the ground. 
More recently fragments of shells of pictus were found in an old 
cemetery at Key "West, Florida (McGinty & McGintj', Nautilus 
60(2) : 43-46, 1946). 

The situation in which the snail was found in August, 1951, 
is a second growth hammock (xeric jungle hammock associes of 
the Florida Keys). The tree growth consisted mainly of scrubby 
poisonwood and wild sapodilla with a few scattered Jamaica 
dogwoods. A considerable understory of shrubs is present, but 
the rocky floor was nearly free of dead leaves. There were 
numerous indications of fires in the past, but no evidence of 
recent burning. No other tree snails nor shell fragments could 
be found anywhere in the vicinity. 

The snail was taken alive to Michigan where Dr. Henry van 
der Schalie succeeded in taking several colored photographs and 
in extracting the animal for preservation. Shell and animal 
are now preserved in the collection of the Museum of Zoology, 
University of Michigan. Dr. William J. Clench kindly con- 
firmed the determination, remarking "certainly pictus and a 
beautiful specimen." 

While making photographs of the specimen Dr. van der 
Schalie observed that it would crawl at much lower humidities 
than specimens of L. f. roseatus color form lossmanicus Pilsbry 
from Key Vaca. This observation checks with the observations 
on the natural habitats in which the two forms were taken, the 
hammock on Big Pine Key being very open and dry. 

The discovery of a living specimen of pictus throws doubt 
on the importance of population size as a factor in the extinction 

72 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (2) 

of Liguss colonies (Young, Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. U^iiv. of 
Mich. (531) : 4, 1951). If a form can exist for over fifty years 
in populations so small that only one living' snail has been re- 
corded, it is possible that any colony can recover if left to itself. 
If any significant area of Big Pine Key can be preserved for 
the protection of the nearly extinct Key Deer, it is possible that 
Liguus of the color forms pictus, graphicus, and perhaps even 
solidus and crassus may eventually be rediscovered there. 

I wish to thank Dr. Irving J. Cantrall, Dale Rice, Edward 
Mockford, and Larry Stieglitz for their assistance on the ex- 
pedition which resulted in the rediscovery of pictus. — Prank N. 
Young, Indiana University. (Contribution No. 496 from De- 
partment of Zoology, Indiana University.) 


Index to the Nautilus, volumes 35 to 60. Compiled by 
Aurele La Rocque, assisted by Geneva Smithe and Harold W. 
Harry. 332 pp., frontispiece portrait of Bryant Walker. Uni- 
versity of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. Price $5.00. This 
volume is uniform in style with the index to vols. 1 to 34. There 
are upwards of 30,000 references. The labor of compiling such 
an index and seeing it through the press can be appreciated only 
by those who have attempted similar work. A new and very 
useful feature is a list of obituaries. The authors are to be 
congratulated upon the appearance of this volume, indispensable 
to all who use The Nautilus. ' ' Index learning turns no student 
pale, but holds the eel of science by the tail. ' ' — H. A. P. 

Les Types de la Collection Lamarck au Museum de Geneve, 
III, by G. Mermod. Revne Suisse de Zoologie 59, No. 2. The 
present number of this valuable and interesting series contains 
the Lamarckian genera Siiccinea, Auricula, Cyclostoma, Plan- 
orhis, Physa, Lymnaea, Melania and Ampullaria. Many Ameri- 
can species are figured and discussed. Planorhis lutescens 
Lamarck is apparently an Australorhis which has not been 
recognized by recent authors. Lymnaea virginiana, "dans les 
eaux donees en Virginie, " is an Indian species. — H. A. P. 


The NAUxmtfs 

Vol. 66 JANUARY, 1953 No. 3 


By gilbert L. VOSS 

Marine Laboratory, University of Miami 

Adam (1937) described Octopus hummelincki from preserved 
specimens collected from the island of Bonaire, in the Dutch 
West Indies, and since that date several other papers have 
appeared describing in detail the morphology of this species. 
In none of these papers, however, are there any observations or 
comments upon living specimens. On July 26, 1952 a specimen 
of this species was collected by Donald R. Moore at Long Reef 
in the Florida Keys while on a class collecting trip with the 
author. In view of the rather unusual characters displayed 
by this specimen it was considered that these observations should 
be added to the literature along with the author's conclusions. 

The specimen, a male with a mantle length of 30 mm., was 
discovered at the entrance to a hole beneath a slab of coral in 
about three feet of water. Immediately upon capture he was 
handed to the author who had an opportunity to observe closely 
his sculpture, coloration, movements and habitat. 

The sculpture, when living, is so different from that of the 
preserved animal that it would scarcely be recognizable as the 
same species. Outstretched in the palm of the author's hand 
each individual cirrus, amounting to about 50 or 60 in number, 
was fully distended into a wide, flat blade or band about 8 to 
10 mm. in length ending distally in an arborescent crest. The 
eyes were raised boldly above the head and accentuated by the 
prominent supraocular cirri. The arms, when at rest, were 

* Contribution Number 81, from the Marine Laboratory, University 
of Miami. 



74 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

held curled back over themselves with the sucker discs fully 
distended, adding to the irregular outline of the body. In 
general the entire surface is very rugose, especially on the 
dorsal portion of the body and arms. When swimming the 
cirri disappear, the rugosity of the skin itself smooths out, the 
arms point forward and adhere tightly together and the whole 
body is streamlined. Although the funnel is of normal size, 
this species appears to be a very active swimmer, much more 
so than the other oetopi such as 0. vulgaris and 0. hriareus. 

The color and color patterns seem to be rather distinctive 
although coloration is so variable in the octopods that in general 
it is not used as a diagnostic character. At rest or crawling 
the basic color was a rich reddish yellow-brown upon which 
were superimposed mottlings of light golden yellow. At inter- 
vals this pattern changed to a lighter brown with granular 
mottlings of grayish white. When swimming the mottlings 
disappeared and the color was a uniform light brown. 

In the water, which was stirred by wave action, the animal 
appeared to be covered by a dense growth of marine algae 
waving with the motion of the water. This effect was heightened 
by the reef being completely covered with a heavy growth of 
attached Sargassum or Gulf weed and scattered clumps of 
Dictyota having the same general color and appearance of the 
cirri. Unfortunately the field data of the other specimens of 
this species now in the literature fail to give any mention of 
the prevailing algal growth. However, both Sargassum and 
Dictyota are commonly found on old coral reef formations in 
Florida and the West Indies and it would be interesting to 
know if it were prevalent in the collecting areas from which 
this species has been taken. A small collection of eight speci- 
mens of 0. hummelincki from Cay Sal Bank were taken from 
reefs having dense algal growth and a single specimen from 
Bimini, Bahamas, also was found surrounded by Sargassum. 
The striking coloration and general appearance of this species 
of octopus closely resembles that of the well-known Sargassum 
fish Histrio histrio as was noted by all of the observers present. 

It is the opinion of the author that 0. hummelincki is re- 
stricted to those reefs of coral origin now overgrown with 
Sargassum, Dictyota, and other genera of the brown algae and 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 75 

is peculiarly adapted among the octopoda to this floral habitat, 
similar to the close associations found in the drifting Sargassum 
complex, a field of study of great interest to marine biologists 
due to the adaptations found within it. The first color pattern 
noted corresponds in a striking degree to the colors exhibited 
by the surrounding algae and the granular grayish-white mot- 
tlings of the second phase imitated the white calcareous sedi- 
mentation found in small areas throughout the reef. 

The specimen when preserved in 5 percent formalin immedi- 
ately contracted the cirri into minute, filiform structures hardly 
noticeable except over the eyes, and the body changed in color 
to a mottled reddish-brown. In every way the specimen, pre- 
served, resembled the other specimens described in the literature 
or in the possession of the author. 

A few remarks on the ocellus of this species seems pertinent. 
Adam, Rees and Pickford variously described the ocellus of the 
specimens examined by them as consisting of a somewhat circu- 
lar patch of brown or dark slate gray separated from a dark 
reddish-brown, brown, or gray center by a thin pale, black, or 
dark ring. Voss (1949) described the ocellus of the only other 
known Florida specimen as "a grayish-black ring surrounding 
a dark gray disc." These descriptions are extremelj^ confusing 
and, in the light of examinations, made by the author of about 
ten specimens from the Bahamas and Florida, are erroneous. 

Actually the ocellus consists of a reddish-brown irregular 
splotch within which is a narrow to broad band forming a more 
or less circular ring which both in life and in freshly preserved 
animals is colored a most intense purplish-blue. In life this 
may fluctuate from a pale blue to the deep color mentioned, 
apparently at the will of the animal. Specimens more than two 
years in preservative still retain this color. Any assumptions 
as to the use or value of this organ is dangerous, but the 
author cannot but point out that in an animal with such a high 
degree of mimicry it may well function as a means of recog- 


Adam, W. 1936. Notes sur les cephalopodes. VI. TJne nouvelle 
espece d 'octopus (Octopus hummelincki) des Indies Orientales 

76 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

Neerlan daises. Bull. Mus. R. Hist. Nat. Belgique, 12: 1-3. 
1937. Cephalopodes des lies Bonaire et Curacao. 

Capita Zoologica, 8: 1-29. 
Rees, W. J. 1950. Notes on Cephalopoda from the Caribbean. 

Proe. Malacolog. Soc. London, 28 (2, 3) : 9-114. 
PiCKFORD, G. E. 1945. Le poulpe americain : A study of the 

littoral Octopoda of the western Atlantic. Trans. Conn. Acad. 

Arts Sci., 36: 701-811. 
1946. A review of the littoral Octopoda from central 

and western Atlantic stations in the collections of the British 

Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11), 13: 412-429. 

1950. The Octopoda of the Oxford University Cayman 

Expedition. Proc. Malacolog. Soc. London, 28 (4, 5) : 139- 
Voss, G. L. 1949. Notes on a specimen of Octopus hummel- 
incki Adam from the Florida Keys. Rev. Soc. Malacologica, 
7 (1) : 3-6. 



While spending the winter of 1943-44 in St. Petersburg, 
Florida my sister and I discovered that the beach along the 
south side of Shore Acres (a subdivision of St. Petersburg) was 
a very productive shelling station at low tide. 

Just beyond the bridge which connects Snell Island and Shore 
Acres there was a narrow clearing off the main road which leads 
to Tampa Bay where we could park the car and walk about 
fifty feet to the beach. We never encountered any other col- 
lectors along that shore, but occasionally we would notice evi- 
dence that someone had been there. 

Up the beach a short distance was an inlet the shores of which 
were quite rocky and the walking difficult because of the dead 
oysters and other shells. It was along this shore that one day 
I saw a shell which I had never collected in Florida, but it was 
deeply and firmly embedded among the broken shells and re- 
quired considerable effort to remove. The greater portion of 
the shell is foveolate and gray from chemicals in the water or 
just plain old age. The fresh new growth which looks as though 
the animal had somehow gotten a new lease on life is not pitted 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 77 

but pinkish white, the aperture pink ; peristome is not chipped 
but the parietal callus while polished is chipped slig-htly. 

When picked up the animal had withdrawn so far into the 
shell that I thought it was dead, but we placed it in our basket 
with the live shells, and upon arrival at our hotel we realized 
that the animal was very much alive. We boiled it, removed it 
from the shell and packed the shell with our other loot for ship- 
ment home. It was months after returning to Buffalo that I 
realized it was a Murex hicolor Val. (Plate 6, fig«. 4, 5). The 
fact that this shell was found so far from its home in Panama, 
and the old and new growth, makes it a real oddity. The pic- 
tures accompanying this article were taken by Charles E. 
Simmons, staff photographer of the Buffalo Society of Natural 



In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 
1848 Lovell Reeve described a gastropod of unknown locality 
in the Cuming collection, under the above name. His account 
was illustrated by a good woodcut which we reproduce in Plate 
6, fig. 3. 

Reeve thought that it was intermediate between Cerithium 
and Turritella. H. & A. Adams, in their Genera of Recent 
Mollusca, placed the genus at first in Fasciolariidae, but in their 
second volume, p. 655, in Cerithiidae. Here it was left by 
Tryon (Man. Conch., 9: 149) and, with a question mark, by 
Thiele. It still remained known only by the single type speci- 
men. The only recent reference to the species is that it was 
listed as ''Fastigiella (Cerithidea) carinata Reeve" in A Com- 
plete List of Bahamian Shells collected and classified by the 
Bahamas Conchological Club, 1941-1944, p. 8, compiled by Paul 
Dean Ford. No locality was mentioned. 

In 1877 (Journal de Conchyliologie, 25 : 208) Morch described 
as Fastigiella poulsenii a crab shell from Eleuthera collected by 
Dr. C. M. Poulsen. It is listed in Poulsen's Catalogue of West 

78 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

India Shells in his collection, p. 9, no. 533 (Copenhagen, 1878). 
This shell measured 17 X 7l^ mm. It was not figured, but the 
description gives one the impression that it is merely the almost 
half-grown young of F. carinata. 

In assorting a collection from Eleuthera made by Mr. A. J. 
Ostheimer III in 1951 a typical specimen of F. cariTiata was 
found. It is figured on PI. 6, fig. 2, X nearly V/o. This speci- 
men is ' ' dead" and white but otherwise perfect. There are three 
narrow but strong spiral ridges on the whorls of the spire, 
seven on the last whorl, or ten at its end counting intermediate 
cords between the larger ribs, conspicuous only on the last half 
whorl though beginning weakly on the penult whorl. On the 
second to fifth whorls there are fine, close axial folds above the 
upper spiral. There is a conspicuous convex siphonal fasciole 
and a short, deep umbilical crease. The upper angle of the 
aperture is narrowly channelled. Length 36 mm., diameter 16 
mm. ; 11 whorls. 

Unfortunately the operculum and soft parts are gone, so that 
Mr. Ostheimer 's specimen does not help us to classify Fastigiella 
more exactly ; but at least it tells us where to go to get the infor- 
mation needed. The exact locality of this specimen, no. 189519 
ANSP., is Bottle Cay, one of the Schooner Cay group, west of 
Tarpum Head in southern Eleuthera. 



Pallifera vaeia, new species. Plate 7, figs. 1, 6. 

Mantle dappled gray or brownish-gray. Tentacles dark slaty- 
blue. Margin of foot reddish-brown. Length up to 65 mm. 
when fully extended in crawling. 

Jaw yellow to chocolate-brown, arcuate, with six to nine ribs. 

Atrium extremely short, only reaching through the integu- 
ment. Penis about one-third as long as the animal (preserved), 
interior with two non-papillose longitudinal channels. Sperma- 
thecal duct with the lower two-thirds greatly enlarged, larger 
than the penis, narrowing rapidly to a slender tube. Sperma- 




Fig. 1. Ilolospira niicdlancnsis Bartscli X 2, p. 69. Fig. 2. FastifficUa 
carl nil Id 1>((\H' X nearly 1 VL'. Fig. .">. FastUjieUa carinaia after Reeve. 
Figs, -t, .j. Murex bicolor Val. from Florida. FiG. 6. Pomacea oligista, 
slightly enlarged. 





Figs. 1, 6. PalUfera varia. 2, 5, Philomycus virginicus. 
3, 4, Philomycus venustus. 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 79 

theca globular. Vagina greatly inflated at the base into a large 
sac, suggesting the dart sac of Philomycus but containing no 

Pallifera varia is related to P. dorsalis (Binn.), differing in 
being larger, with a stronger dorsal pattern. In P. dorsalis the 
atrium is longer, and the penis has four non-papillose longi- 
tudinal channels. 

Distribution. — VIRGINIA : Rappahannock Co. near Meadow 
Spring, Shenandoah Nat. Park. Madison Co. : woods, above 
Hemlock Spring Overlook, Shenandoah Nat. Park; near Sky- 
land, Shenandoah Nat. Park, Holotype 574701 U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Paratype 189176 A.N.S.P., other paratypes 12164 collection of 
the author. Amherst Co. : summit of Tobacco Row Mtn., north of 
Elon. Rockbridge Co. : Thunder Ridge, Blue Ridge Parkway. 
Bedford Co. : Flat Top Mtn., Peaks of Otter, Blue Ridge Park- 

Philomycus venustus, new species. Plate 7, figs. 3, 4. 

Color pattern varying from individuals having two dorsal 
bands, a narrow lateral band on each side, connected to the 
dorsal bands by a series of oblique stripes; to individuals in 
which this pattern is broken up into a series of spots. Pattern 
dark gray in very young specimens, becoming dark chestnut- 
brown in mature individuals. Maximum length, extended in 
crawling, about 100 mm. 

At Comers Rock, the type locality, this species was found 
associated with P. flexuolaris and was readily separated. It 
is more terrestrial than P. flexuolaris. Only occasionally being 
found on trees. Some specimens show two rows of spots down 
the back but the spots are brown, not black as in P. carolinianus. 

Distribution.— WEST VIRGINIA: Randolph Co.: 4500 ft., 
Spruce Knob. VIRGINIA: Wythe Co.: 4000 ft., below fire 
tower, Comers Rock, Iron Mtns., Holotype 574700, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Paratype 189459 A.N.S.P., other paratypes A9876, collec- 
tion of the author. Grayson Co. : spruce swamp, 4800 ft.. White 
Top Mtn., 5000-5500 ft., Mt. Rogers. Washington Co. : 1 mile 
south of Damascus; bluff along North Fork Holston River, 2 
miles southeast of Hyters Gap. Wise Co. : summit of Black Mtn., 
at Va.— 160. NORTH CAROLINA: Watauga Co.: 4500 ft., 

80 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

Rich Mtn., 2 miles south of Silverstone. Mitchell Co. : 5000 ft., 
Roan Mtn., 0.5 mile southeast of Carvers Gap. Swain Co. 
near Smokemont Campgrounds, Great Smoky Mtns. Nat Park 
Nantahala Gorge, near Nantahala. TENNESSEE : Sullivan Co. 
Worley Cave Sink, 2.5 miles east of Bluff City. Carter Co. 
4000 ft., north side of Roan Mtn., 2.5 miles south of Burbank 
Doe River bluff, 1 mile northwest of Hampton. Sevier Co. : near 
Chimneys Campgrounds, Great Smoky Mtns. Nat. Park. 

Philomycus vieginicus, new species. Plate 7, figs. 2, 5. 

Color pattern consisting of a broad dorsal band, and a narrow 
lateral band on each side, connected to the dorsal band by a 
series of oblique stripes, the whole pattern obscured by a general 
fine flecking. Young with the pattern brownish-gray, becoming 
chestnut-brown with age. Maximum length, extended in crawl- 
ing, about 100 mm. 

Philomycus virginicus has been found associated with both 
P. flexuolaris (Raf.) and P. carolinianus collinus Hubricht and 
was readily separated. It differs from both in being browner 
and in having a well-developed diagonal pattern. 

Distribution. — VIRGINIA : Madison Co. : 0.5 mile west of 
milepost 47, Shenandoah Nat. Park; near Skyland, Shenandoah 
Nat. Park, Holotype 574699, U. S. Nat. Mus., Paratype 189175. 
A.N.S.P., other paratypes 12163 collection of the author. Alle- 
ghany Co. : wooded hillside, near Griffith, 6 miles northeast of 
Cliffton Forge. Bedford Co. : Flat Top Mtn., Peaks of Otter, 
Blue Ridge Parkway. Pittsylvania Co. : bluff along Roanoke 
River, 3 miles northwest of Brights ; bluff along Roanoke River, 
2 miles northeast of Hurt. Patrick Co. : Kibler Park, below 
Pinnacles powerhouse. 




By henry van DER SCHALIE 

One of the interesting observations that has impressed most 
investigators who have examined moUusks taken from Pleistocene 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 81 

deposits is the close similarity between many of the fossil forms 
and the species found in the area drained by the IVIississippi 
River today. Some time ago two of the active students of the 
Pleistocene differed about the significance of the differentiation 
observed and in an article discussing these variations in time, 
B. Shimek (1930: 40) wrote: 

"There is much variation in both modern and fossil faunas, 
but the two groups blend in such a manner that any attempt to 
represent marked changes is extremely unfortunate and mislead- 
ing. Mr. Baker is making this attempt both by representing 
that well marked faunas have become extinct, and by the appli- 
cation of such names as pleistocenica, yarmouthensis, etc., with- 
out giving due heed to the variations in modern and fossil 
faunas. ' ' 

The Pleistocene shells reported here are for the most part the 
same as those found inhabiting the general region of Kansas 
today. Practically all the more common land and fresh-water 
genera and species are represented. To date not a single en- 
demic form has been discovered in the Jinglebob fauna among 
the material examined from Meade County. Differences found 
in these assemblages are related largely to shifts which have 
occurred in the patterns of distribution and there certainly are 
changes in the range of some of the species. By combining in- 
formation concerning the ecological needs of some of these 
Pleistocene forms it is possible to reconstruct conditions which 
existed during that geologic age. The difficulty that arises in 
such an attempted reconstruction relates to the serious lack 
of sound information about limiting factors in the environment 
of the mollusks. Tolerance ranges are not known for most 
recent species. Until the ecology of key forms has been more 
critically analyzed most attempted appraisal of conditions dur- 
ing the Pleistocene will be in the realm of the uncertain. 

The only previous account of the mollusks from this horizon 
in Meade County was contained in a paper by George C. Rinker 
(1949) describing the skull of a large bear. The mollusks found 
with that skull in the Kingsdown formation comprised 11 land 
shells, 10 fresh-water pulmonates, and 4 sphaeriids. An obvious 
error in that list (1949: 10) should be corrected, i.e., "Physa 
arbor eus Say" should read " Zonitoides arhoreus Say." 

82 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

The fossil mollusks of Kansas have been studied in some detail 
by A. Byron Leonard. Two recent papers (1950; 1952) are of 
special interest in that the species reported in them are similar 
in some respects to those given here. Since the assemblages are 
well figured in Leonard's papers his illustrations can be used 
advantageously for reference work. Other investigators, such 
as Eisely (1937), LaRocque (1952), Russell (1934), Yen (1947; 
1951), etc., have considered the use of fossil mollusks for in- 
terpretations of prehistoric conditions. 

The following forty-nine species were found in the deposits 
investigated by C. W. Hibbard in Meade County, Kansas. This 
fauna has been designated by him as the Jinglebob local fauna. 
Its relation to other faunas in Meade County will appear in a 
paper by Hibbard, now in press, who tentatively correlates the 
fauna in age with the Sangamon. The mollusks in this fauna 
consist of 28 land shells (including one slug), 15 fresh-water 
snails (all pulmonates with one exception), and 6 sphaeriids. 
All of the material reported came from only three of the 80 
pounds of concentrate recovered from the washers. Problems 
that relate to species in this assemblage and considerations of 
the fauna as a whole will appear following the presentation of 
the list of species. 

Species list indicating the fossils found in the Jinglebob 

Fauna in Pleistocene deposits of Meade County, 

Kansas (collected by Claude W. Hibbard 

AND party) 

Number of 


Stenotrema monodon (Rackett) 1 


Euconulus fulvus (Miiller) 20 

Betinella electrina (Gould) 8 

Betinella cf. rhoadsi (Pilsbry) 8 

Hawaiia minuscula (Binney) 200 

Zonitoides arhoreus (Say) 40 


Jan., 1953] the nautilus 83 

Deroceras cf. aenigma Leonard 30 


Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) 50 

Punctum minutissium (Lea) (= Punctum pygmaeum 

(Drap.)) 35 


Succinea ovalis Say 6 

Succinea grosvenori Lea 100 

Succinea ef. avara (Say) 20 


Strohilops texasiana (Pilsbry and Ferriss) 70 


Pupoides alhilabris (C. B. Adams) (= Pupoides margi- 

natus (Say) ) 100 

Pupilla blandi Morse 2 

Gastrocopta armifera ahhreviata (Sterki) 200 

Gastrocopta contracta (Say) 100 

Gastrocopta holzingeri (Sterki) 50 

Gastrocopta pentodoji (Say) 300 

Gastrocopta cf. tappaniana (C. B. Adams) 1 

Gastrocopta procera (Gould) 5 

Gastrocopta cristata (Pilsbry and Vanatta) 200 

Gastrocopta sp. (a small five-whorled form with stunted 

apertural teeth; the last whorl is decidedly striate) 1 

Vertigo milium (Gould) 100 

Vertigo ovata Say 150 


Vallonia parvula Sterki 50 

Vallonia gracilicosta Reinhardt 150 


Carychium ef. exiguum (Say) 300 

Pulmonates: Fresh-Water Snails 


Lymnaea bulimoides Lea 50 

Lymnaea caperata Say (three specimens in this series 
have the spire and upper whorls suppressed and 
twisted in a peculiar way) 50 

84 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

Lymnaea cf. galhana (Say) 20 

Lymnaea humilis niodicella (Say) 50 

Lymnaea cf. palustris (Miiller) 15 


Helisoma a7iceps (Menke) {= H. antrosa (Conrad) .. 50 

Helisoma cf. lentum (Say) 30 

Menetus exacuous (Say) 50 

Gyraulus similaris (F. C. Baker) 500 


Physa cf . anatina Lea 30 

Physa cf . elliptica Lea 100 

Aplexa hypnorum Linnaeus 15 


Ferrissia parallela (Haldeman) 5 

Ferrissia rivularis (Say) 3 

Operculates: Fresh-Water Snails 


Valvata tricarinata Say 1 



Sphaerium sulcatum (Lamarck) 30 

Sphaerium occidentale Prime 8 

Pisidium casertanum (Poli) (= P. ahditum Haldeman) 500 

Pisidmm compressum, Prime 50 

Pisidium ohtusale C. Pfeiffer (= P. rotundatum) .... 20 

Pisidium contortum Prime 14 

A comparison of these species with those reported by Leonard 
as belonging to the "Yarmouthian Molluscan Fauna" indicates 
that at least the following twenty-two species did not appear 
later in the Jinglebob assemblage in Sangamon time. This dif- 
ference is especially noteworthy when it is realized that the 
Yarmouthian assemblage represents a fauna w^hich lived under 
decidedly cool and generally different environmental conditions. 

Valvata lewisi Currier Planorhula vulcanata Leonard 

Amnicola limosa parva Lea Planorlula nehraskensis Leon- 
Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis ard 

(Lea) Menetus pearllettei Leonard 

Lymnaea reflexa Say Gyraulus labiatus Leonard 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 85 

Oxyloma navarrei Leonard. Gastrocopta proarmifera Leon- 

Cionella luhrica Miiller ard 

Vertigo tridentata Wolf Gastrocopta falcis Leonard 

Vertigo modesta Say Vallonia pulchella (Miiller) 

Pupilla muscoriim (Linne) Strohilops sparsicosta F. C. 

Gyraulus pattersoni F. C. Baker 

Baker Discus cronkhitei (Neweomb) 
Carychium perexiguum F, C. Polygyra texasiana (Morieand) 

Baker Hendersonia occulta (Say) 

The habitat requirements of the aquatic snails that were 
found in the Jinglebob fauna seem to indicate that the condi- 
tions during the Sangamon (?) interglacial were in some re- 
spects similar to those found in the "woods pool" regions of 
southern Michigan today. Such aquatic forms as Lymnaea 
caperata, Lymnaea palustris, Menetus exacuous and Aplexa 
kypnorum are all characteristically associated with temporary 
pools in lower Michigan at present. 

Some of the land shells in the Jinglebob fauna are now more 
southern in distribution, indicating that perhaps conditions at 
that time in the Pleistocene were warm and moist. Both Strohi- 
lops texasiana and Gastrocopta cristata are at the present time 
farther south in range. As is also noticeable, both Vallonia 
pulchella and Pupilla muscorum, which now occupy a more 
northern range, are conspicuously absent. The land and fresh- 
water forms suggest a warm and moist climate in a wooded 
region containing temporary woods pools. 

The sphaeriids were determined by H. B. Herrington. His 
comments regarding the environment of the species are of in- 
terest in interpreting the conditions that existed at the time 
those animals lived. In a personal communication he stated : 

"The impression I get on examining these shells is that they 
came from a situation where a slow stream is widening with 
lagoon conditions at its sides The Sphaerium occidentale, 
Pisidium ohtusale and the thin Pisidium casertanum indicate a 
pond or a lagoon. But Sphaerium sulcatum, although always 
requiring a soft bottom, is never found in a pond that dries in 
summer. It belongs to eddies in streams and, sometimes, along 
the shores of lakes at a depth not much disturbed by wind 
action. Pisidium compresum I have never found in a stagnant 

86 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

"None of the specimens in this collection suggest wave action 
nor rolling by a swift stream, as none are worn. ... If these 
lived in an enlargement of a stream the still water would be 
suitable for Pisidium ohtusale, and the Sphaerium occidentale 
could have lived among the leaves and the grass along shore, or 
in a lagoon. The shell of these Sphaerium occidentale is of the 
thicker texture such as belongs to specimens from ponds and 
lagoons, rather than to swamps where there is no water action 
and where the shell is more fragile. 

"There seems to have been two related kinds of habitats 
contiguous — running water where larger and heavier specimens 
of Pisidium castertanum, Pisidium compressum and Sphaerium 
sulcatum lived. The other habitat seems to have been some- 
thing of the nature of a pond or lagoon where the water pretty- 
well dries up for part of the year." 

The interpretation above as based on sphaeriid ecology agrees 
essentially with what has been postulated to be the conditions 
which the associated aquatic snails would require. It is evident 
that the presence of an operculate, such as Valvata tricarinata, 
would require the presence of a body of water of a more perma- 
nent nature such as a ponded stream or small lake. Operculates 
are not found usually in woods pools. It is also of interest 
that Valvata occurred at that time in glacial history because 
its presence indicates a need for revising the following conclu- 
sion arrived at by Leonard (1952: 10): ". . . None of the 
genera of branchiate gastropods, such as Amnicola, Pomatiopsis, 
and Valvata, survived the Yarmouthian interglacial interval in 
the mid-continent region." Another statement needing modifi- 
cation in the light of what is contained in the Jinglebob fauna 
pertains to the pulmonates. Leonard (1952: 10) stated: ". . . 
Likewise, pulmonate gastropods, such as Planorhula, Menetus, 
Promenetus, Ferrissia, most species of Gyraulus, and large 
species of Lymnaea, failed to survive the ecological changes that 
followed the close of deposition of Sappa silts." Again the 
faunal list presented clearly indicates that Ferrissia, Menetus 
and Gyraulus, as well as sizeable lymnaeids, were not uncom- 
mon in Sangamon or the third interglacial age. 

It is clear from the evidence adduced by Leonard in his ac- 
count of the "Illinoian and Wisconsinan MoUuscan Faunas in 
Kansas" that he believed there was a drastic reduction in the 
number of species that survived in the high plains after the 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 87 

" Yarmouthian " interglacial age. His deduction (1952: 10) 
is clearly stated : "It is difficult to escape the conclusion that a 
profound change in ecological conditions in the Great Plains 
region occurred at the close of the Yarmouthian interglacial 
interval or at the beginning of the Illinoian cycle of erosion. 
Dramatic extinction of the great populations of branchiate and 
other gastropods adapted to life in permanent water, which 
thrived in western Kansas in late Kansan and early Yarmouthian 
times, is indicative of a less humid environment and of less 
alluviated valley systems in the Great Plains region." So rich 
and varied an assemblage of approximately fifty species in an 
age well beyond Yarmouthian time definitely indicates that with 
an accumulation of further evidence our concepts about condi- 
tions in the high plains during the Pleistocene will need to be 
modified as new evidence accumulates. 

Leonard (1952: 27-35) presented a series of distribution 
maps to indicate the range of a number of recent species which 
have a more or less characteristic pattern but which do not 
occur in Kansas or in portions of the "mid-continent" region. 
Although the general information contained in his maps is 
useful and the maps will prove of value to those needing such 
data, an examination of the records available in the Museum 
of Zoology indicates that the distributional data are in need of 
revision. The following records are submitted to show some 
of the discrepancies observed: (1) Cionella luhrica (Leonard's 
figure 7) is shown as not occurring in Kansas, Nebraska and 
South Dakota. There are, however, records from Roberts 
County, South Dakota; and Manhattan, Riley Co., Kansas. (2) 
Discus cronkhitei (Leonard's figure 8) is not supposed to occur 
in Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and most of Iowa. Its oc- 
currence is established in Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa; 
Ruthven, Palo Alto County, Iowa; Roberts County, South Da- 
kota; and Spearfish, Lawrence County, South Dakota. (3) 
Striatura milium is recorded from Devil's Lake, North Dakota, 
and Walker, in his Mollusca of Alabama, has many records of 
it for that state, although it is not shown to have a southern 
range on Leonard's map. (4) Succinea ovalis (Leonard's fig- 
ure 14) is not supposed to occur in Kansas, but we have a record 
for it at St. Joseph, Cloud County, Kansas (on the Kansas 
drainage in the north central part of the state). 

88 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

The above records concern land snails. Among the fresh- 
water forms there are also collections available which show that 
the ranges given by Leonard (1950) are not as accurate as they 
could be. The following data are presented to supplement the 
information already given by him in previous publications. 
(1) Valvata tricarinaia Say does extend into the mideontinent 
region and the Museum of Zoology has records which establish 
it in Manitoba, three counties in Iowa, and four counties in 
South Dakota. (2) Valvata lewisi Currier was discovered in 
the Yarmouthian fauna of "Lincoln County, Kansas (loc. 23)" 
and Leonard (1950: 11) stated: "... The Lincoln County, 
Kansas, record is far out of the range of the living species." 
There is, hoAvever, a recent record of its occurrence in Douglas 
County, South Dakota. (3) Ferrissia parallela (Haldeman) is 
recorded from Madge Lake, Saskatchewan, as well as from Rob- 
erts and Marshall counties. South Dakota. Such records reveal 
that the statement (1952: 21): "It is absent from the mid- 
continent region" will need to be revised. (4) Aplexa kyp- 
norum (Linne)was not known according to Leonard (1950: 
22) to occur in the mideontinent region. There are, neverthe- 
less, records from Franklin, Palo Alto and Polk counties in 
Iowa ; Cherry County, Nebraska ; Roberts County, South Da- 
kota ; Devil's Lake, North Dakota; Ravalli and Gallatin coun- 
ties, Montana ; and Little Quill Lake, Saskatchewan. 

Although the amount of information presented by Leonard 
regarding the distribution of recent forms is commendable, it is 
necessary to incorporate available information if we are to in- 
dicate whether or not certain species are among the recent forms 
inhabiting the mideontinent region. Since human occupation 
has altered considerably large areas in the high plains region 
it goes without saying that early collections must often be relied 
upon to attain an understanding of the original range of some 
of the recent species. Many records established by the late B. 
Shimek will probably never again be duplicated in a region so 
heavily farmed as Iowa. 

In summary, the Jinglebob fauna in Meade County, Kansas, 
was found to contain a rich and varied mollusk fauna consisting 
of forty-nine species. An interpretation of the ecological needs 
for this assemblage indicates that the region was probably 

Jan., 19531 the xautilus 89 

warmer and had a greater rainfall than at present. Some of 
the aquatic snails are characteristically those which inhabit 
woods pools similar to those found in southern Michigan today. 
The fauna is typically Mississippian and there appear to be no 
endemic species. Although many distributional records are 
available in centers housing mollusk collections, more detailed 
maps giving the range limits of recent species are needed for 
critical analyses of the relation of Pleistocene faunas to recent 
species. The job of collating those distribution records is diffi- 
cult because of the waj'^ such records are scattered among col- 
lections. Also, there are large areas still in need of painstaking 
field work. 


Baker, F. C. 1931. Pleistocene History of the Territorial 

Mollusca of Fulton County, Illinois. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci., 

24: 149-59. 
. 1938. New Land and Freshwater Mollusca from the 

Upper Pliocene of Kansas and a New Species of Gjjraiilus 

from Early Pleistocene Strata. Nautilus, 51: 126-31. 
EisELEY, L. C. 1941. Index Mollusca and Their Bearing on 

Certain Problems of Prehistory : A Critique. Philad. Anthro. 

Soc, 1: 77-94. 
HiBBARD, C. W. 1941. Mammals of the Rexroad Fauna from the 

Upper Pliocene of Southwestern Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. 

Sci., 44: 265-312. 
. 1949. Pleistocene Vertebrate Paleontology in North 

America. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 60: 1417-28. 
LaRocque, Aurele. 1952. Molluscan Faunas of the Oreleton 

Mastodon Site, Madison County, Ohio. Ohio Journal Sci., 

52: 10-27. 
Leonard, A. Byron. 1948. Five New Yarmouthian Planorbid 

Snails. Nautilus, 62: 41-47. 
. 1950. A Yarmouthian Molluscan Fauna in the Midconti- 

nent Region of the United States. Univ. Kansas Paleo, Con- 

trib., Mollusca, art. 3: 1-48. 

1952. Ulinoian and Wiscousinan Molluscan Faunas in 

Kansas. Univ. Kansas Paleo. Contrib., i\Iollusea, Art. 4: 1-38. 
Leonard, A. Byron, and C. Raymond Goble. 1952. Mollusca 

of the University of Kansas Natural History Reservation. 

Univ. Kansas Sci'. Bull., 34: 1013-1055. 
Leonard, Alice E. 1943. The Mollusca of Meade and Clark 

Counties. Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 46: 226-40. 

90 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

RiNKER, G. C. 1949. Tremarct other ium from the Pleistocene of 
Meade County, Kansas. Contrib, Mus. Paleontol, Univ. Mich., 
7; 107-12. 

Russell, L. S. 1934. Pleistocene and Post-Pleistocene Mol- 
luscan Faunas of Southern Saskatchewan. Can. Field. Nat., 
48: 34-37. 

Shimek, B. 1930. Pleistocene and Recent Mollusks. Nautilus, 
U: 37-41. 

Yen, Teng-Chien. 1947. Distribution of Fossil and Fresh- 
Water Mollusks. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 58: 293-98. 

. 1951. Fossil Fresh-Water Mollusks and Ecological In- 
terpretations. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 62: 1375-80. 



{Continued from October, 1952, issue) 

georgina, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 74, No. 17 (Habite le 
lac George, Cabinet de M. Valenciennes). Holotype in the 
Paris Museum. Length 59 mm. Is EllijJtio complanatus. 

glahrata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 75, No. 21 (Habite la 
riviere de I'Ohio, Michaud). Holotype in the Paris Museum. 
Length 70 mm. Is Elliptio complanatus Solander. 

glauca 'Valenciennes' Lamarck, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 
6, p. 87, No. 13 (Habite en Amerique, dans des eaux douces 
voisines d'Acapulco, collection de MM. le baron Humboldt et 
Bonpland), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 13, fig. 3. Figured 
holotype in the Geneva Museum. Length 98 mm. There is a 
specimen in the Paris Museum from Humboldt presumably 
from the type lot and figured by Fischer & Crosse, 1894, Mis- 
sion Scientifique au Mexique et dans 1 'Amerique Centrale. 
Part 7, 2, p. 533, pi. 69, fig. 1, la. Is Anodontites glaucus 
*Val.' Lamarck. 

intermedia, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 86, No. 10 
(Habite en France dans la Loire, etc. Cabinet de M. Du- 
fresne), 4 cotypes in the Geneva Museum. Is Anodonta 
cygnea Linn. 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 91 

ligamentina, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 72 (Habite la 
riviere de I'Ohio, A. Michaud). Lamarck gives the measure- 
ment 77 mm. in length. The type in the Paris Museum is 
73 mm. in length. Is Actinonaias carinata Barnes, see Ort- 
mann and Walker, 1922, Occ. Papers, Mus. Zool. Univ. of 
Michigan No. 112, p. 47. 

littoralis, TJnio: 1801, Systeme des Animaux sans Vertebres, p. 
114; 1819. An. sans Vert. 6, p. 76, No. 25 (Habite dans les 
rivieres de France, commune dans la Seine). Six cotypes 
in the Geneva Museum. Is TJnio littoralis Lamarck. 

luteola, TJnio: 1810, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 79, No. 40 (Habite la 
riviere Susquehana et celle Mohancks, dans les Etats-Unis). 
Holotype in the Paris Museum. Length 69 mm. The descrip- 
tion would indicate that Lamarck was describing LampsHis 
cariosa Say. The type, however, is Lampsilis siliquoideaf 

manca, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 80, No. 43 (Habite en 
Bourgogne, dans la Dree. Cabinet de M. de Ferussac). Could 
not be located, even though the Ferussac collections were 
eventually deposited in the Paris Museum. Is TJnio pictorum 

marginalis, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 79, No. 41 (Habite 
au Bengale, dans les rivieres). Lamarck refers to Encj'' 
Method. 1797, pi. 247, fig. 1, a, b, c. Holotype in the Geneva 
Museum. Length 75 mm. Is Lamellidens marginalis La- 

nana, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 76, No. 27 (Habite dans 
la Franche-Comte, Cabinet de M. de Ferussac). Could not be 
located, even though the Ferussac collections were eventually 
deposited in the Paris Museum. Is Unio crassus hatavus 
Maton and Rackett. 

naviformis, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 75, No. 20 (Habite 
la riviere de Ohio, Michaud fils). Holotype in the Paris 
Museum. Length 75 mm. Is Quadrula cylindrica Say. 

ohliqua, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 72, No. 8 (Habite la 
riviere de I'Ohio, A. Michaud). Could not be located but 
should be in the Paris Museum. Is Pleurobema cordatum 

92 THE NAUTILUS | Vol. 66 (3) 

patagonica, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vort. 6, p. 88, No. 15 (Habite 
dans I'Amerique, les rivieres de la Plata et celles dii pays des 
Patagons). Lamarck refers to Eney. Method. 1797, pi. 203, 
fig. 1, a, b. There are two cotypes in the Geneva Museum, 
one measuring 80 mm. in length and the other 60 mm. in 
length. Lamarck gives the length as from 72 to 80 mm. Is 
Anodontites paiagonicus Lamarck. 

pensylvanica. Anodonfa: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 86, No. 9 
(Habite la riviere de Schugikill, pres de Philadelphie, M. 
Wanuxem), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 13, fig. 4. La- 
marck gives the measurement 51 mm. in length. The type 
figured by Delessert in the Geneva Museum is 47 mm. in length. 
Is Strophitus iindidatus Say. 

peruviana, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 71, No. 4 (Habite 
au Perou, dans les rivieres, Dombey). Lamarck refers to 
Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 248, fig. 7. Holotype in the Geneva 
Museum. Length 109 mm. Is Amhlema peruviana Lamarck. 

purpuracens, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 73, No. 12 (Habite 
les rivieres de I'etat de New-Yorck, Cabinet de M. Valenci- 
ennes). The type of this species could not be located, though 
there are specimens of the varieties in the Paris Museum. 
Some are Elliptio complanatus Solander, the others Lampsilis 
radiata Gmelin. 

purpurata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 71, No. 6 (Habite 
. . . Je la crois des grandes rivieres de I'Afrique). Holotype 
in the Geneva Museum. Length 139 mm. Is Lampsilis 
purpurata Lamarck. 

rariplicata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 71, No. 5 (Habite 
la riviere de I'Ohio, IMichaud). Lamarck gives the measure- 
ment 62 mm. in length. The type in the Paris Museum 
measures 70 mm. Is Amhlema plicata Say. 

rarisulcata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 72, No. 10 (Habite 
dans le lac Champlain, Cabinet de ]M. Dufresne). Could not 
be located. Might be in the Edinburgh ^Museum (see Sher- 
born, 1940, Where is the — Collection?, p. 47). Is Elliptio 
complanatus Solander. 

recta, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 74, No. 19 (Habite le lac 
Erie, Michaud fils). Holotype in the Paris Museum. Length 

Jan., 19531 the nautilus 93 

100 mm. The original label says, "de la [vici] ite de Niaga 
[sic]. Is Lamj)silis recta Lamarck. 

retusa, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 72, No. 9 (Habite les 
rivieres de la Nouvelle Ecosse, A. Michaiid). Lamarck gives 
the measurement 47 mm. in length. The type in the Paris 
IMuseum measures 40 mm. Is Ohovaria retusa Lamarck. 

rhomhiila, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 74, No. 15 (Habite an 
Senegal, dans les rivieres). 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 12, 
fig. 8. Figured holotype in the Geneva Museum. Length 65 
mm. Is Elliptio complanatus Solander. 

rostrata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 77, No. 31 (Habite 
dans le Rhone et les grandes rivieres de I'Allemagne, de 
Silese, etc.). There are two specimens of this species in the 
Geneva Museum with the label, "Type prob." They each 
measure 88 mm. in length. Lamarck gives the measurement 
99 mm. in length. Is TJnio pictorum rostratus Lamarck. 

rotundata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 75, No. 24 (Habite 
. . . Cabinet de M. Daudebard et eelui de M. Faujas). The 
type of this species could not be located. Is Glchula rotundata 

ruhens, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 85, No. 6 (Habite 
au Senegal). The type of this species could not be located. 
It should be in the Geneva iMuseum. Is Spatha ruhens La- 

semi-rugata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 76, No. 26 (Habite 
. . .), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. pi. 12, fig. 6. Figured holo- 
type in the Geneva Museum. Length 40 mm. Is Unio scmi- 
rugata Lamarck. 

sinuata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 70, No. 1 (Habite dans 
le Rhin, la Loire, et les autres grandes rivieres du continent 
europeen, tempere et austral). Four cotypes in the Geneva 
Museum. Lamarck gives the measurements 140 to 145 mm. 
in length. Is Unio crassus Retzius. 

sinuosa, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 87, No. 14 (Habite 
. . . Cabinet de M. Daudebard). Lamarck refers to Ency. 
Method, 1797, pi. 203, fig. 2, a, b. Holotype in the Geneva 
Museum. Length 85 mm. There is a smaller paratype. Also 
one idiotype in the Paris Museum named by Lamarck and 

94 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

coming from the Ferussac collection. It has the same length 
as the holotj'pe. Is Anodo7itites sinuosus Lamarck. 

spuria, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 80, No. 45 (Habite . . . 
les regions australes de I'Asie?, Du voj^age de Baudin). The 
type could not be found. It should be in the Paris Museum. 
Identification uncertain. 

suhorhiculata, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 81, No. 48 
(Habite ... les eaux douces des elimats chauds?. Cabinet 
de MM. Daudebard et Faujas). The type consists of one 
valve measuring 92 mm. in length with the label "individual 
decrit par Lamarck et prouvenant du Cabinet de Faujas." 
Lamarck gives the measurement 80 mm. in length. Is 
Glebula rotundata Lamarck. 

sulcata, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 85, No. 3 (Habite 
le lac Ladoga et les rivieres des Etats-Unis). Lamarck refers 
to Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 202, fig. 1, a, b. Holotype in the 
Geneva Museum. Length 181 mm. There is also a smaller 
paratype which measures 135 mm. in length. Is Anodonta 
cygnea Linn. 

sulcidens, Unio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 77, No. 30 (Habite 
dans une riviere du Connecticut, M. Lesueur ; et dans la 
riviere Schunglkill, M. Wanuxem), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. 
pi. 12, fig. 3. Figured paratype in the Geneva Museum. 
Length 56 mm. Delessert figured the largest of three para- 
types. The other two measure 48 mm. in length. The holotype 
from the Connecticut River is in the Paris Museum and 
measures 80 mm. in length. Is Elliptio complanatus Solander. 

trapesialis, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 87, No. 11 
(Habite . . . dans les eaux douces etrangeres a celles de 
1 'Europe?). Lamarck refers to Ency. Method. 1797, pi. 
205, fig. 1, a, b. Holotype in the Geneva Museum. Length 
140 mm. There is also a smaller paratype. Is Anodontites 
trapesiales Lamarck. 

uniopsis, Anodonta: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 86, No. 8 (Habite 
... les regions australes?, Du voyage de Baudin). The type 
consists of one specimen measuring 74 mm. in length with the 
label, "individual decrit par Lamarck." It measures 57 mm. 
in length. Is Microcondylaea compressa Menke, see Haas, 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 95 

1940 Zool. Series, Field Mus. Chicago, Illinois 24, No. 11, 
p. 133. 

varicosa, JJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 78, No. 36 (Habite la 
riviere de Schuglkill, pres de Philadelphie, M. Wanuxem; — 
aussi dans le lac Champlain. Cabinet de M. Valenciennes). 
Type in the Geneva Museum from the former locality and 
measuring 30 mm, in length. Lamarck gives no measurements. 
1 specimen in the Paris Museum under this name, but is not 
varicosa Lamarck, but Alasmidonta undulata Say. Is Alasmi- 
donta varicosa Lamarck. 

virginiana, TJnio: 1819, An. sans Vert. 6, p. 79, No. 39 (Habite 
la riviere Potowmac, en Virginie), 1841, Delessert, Rec. Coq. 
pi. 12, fig. 4. Figured holotype in the Geneva Museum. 
Length 60 mm. In the Paris Museum is a plaque with four 
specimens and the label, "Anodonta Virginia Lam. de Virginie, 
fig. dans le Rec. Coq. pi. 12, fig. 4 " ; however these specimens 
are Strophitus rugosus Swainson and could not be Lamarck's 
types. Is Elliptio complanatus Solander. 



Xesta cincta (Lea) has long been the name of a species with 
several geographic races inhabiting the northern peninsula of 
Celebes. Lea (1834, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, n. s., 5 : 56 ; Observ. 
Genus Unio, 1: 168, pi. 19, fig. 68) described under the name 
Helix cincta a specimen which he doubtfully attributed to Java. 
Henry Adams (1865, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 406) and von 
Martens (1867, Preuss. Exped. Ost-Asien. Zool. Theil, 2: 212- 
213) were the first to assign this name to the species from north- 
ern Celebes, basing their determinations on specimens labeled 
cincta Lea in the Cumingian collection, although von Martens 
noticed that Lea's figure did not quite agree with these speci- 
mens. Subsequent students have followed these workers. The 
cousins Sarasin, for instance, (1899, P. and F. Sarasin, Die 
Landmollusken von Celebes: 151-158, pi. 19) gave a detailed 
account of the variations found in the complex they called the 
" Formenkette " (chain of forms) of Xesta cincta (Lea). They 

96 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

recognized three forms, the typical one from the eastern Mina- 
hassa section of the peninsula, the form mongondica P. and F. 
Sarasin from the central part of the peninsula, and the form 
limbifera (v. Martens) found in the western part. More re- 
cently Rensch (1933, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 19: 113-114) has 
termed these forms geographic races, and considers the complex 
to form a typical Rassenkreis. Niethammer, in his contribution 
to the knowledge of the land mollusks of Celebes (1937, Archiv 
f. Naturgesch. n. F., 6: 399) agrees with the Sarasins and 

An examination, however, of Lea's type of Helix cincta 
(U.S.N.M. 105320) reveals the fact that it is not the Celebes 
species at all, but a form of Eurycampta arcHstria (Pfeiffer) 
(Helminthoglyptidae : Cepolinae) from central and western 
Cuba. It is noticeably different from the East Indian species in 
possessing a heavier shell, with coarser, more malleate sculpture, 
with the columellar portion of the lip more reflexed, and without 
the dark spot in the umbilical region. Von Martens (I.e.: 213) 
is in error when he says that Lea's description mentions this 
umbilical spot though his figure does not show it. On the 
contrary. Lea states that the color is ''more pale" about the 

The species from northern Celebes must, therefore, take the 
next available name, which is Naninia steursi (Shuttleworth, 
1852), not only because Lea's name relates to a Cuban snail, but 
also because the name Helix cincta had been used twice pre- 
viously, by Miiller in 1774, and by Sheppard in 1823. 

I might point out that the generic name Xesta Albers, 1850, 
which is usually applied to the Celebes species, should be re- 
placed by the earlier name Naninia Sowerby, 1842, as pointed 
out by H. B. Baker (1936, Nautilus 50 (1) : 30; 1938, 51 (3) : 
104—105), both genera having the same type species. 

The Cuban species Eurycampta arctistria (Pfr.) appears to 
break up into several races. When this ccomplex is completely 
studied Lea's Helix ci^icta will fall into the synonymy of the 
name applied to one of those geographic subspecies. In the 
collections of the United States National Museum are specimens 
from the shores of Bahia de Cochinos, Las Villas Province, that 
match Lea's specimen. 

Jan., 1953 




The specimens recorded in this paper were collected by the 
junior author in the Uinta Mountains (Summit County) and 
Wasatch Mountains (Salt Lake County) in the northeastern 
part of Utah, U. S. A., from 1944 to 1949. The determinations 
were made by the senior author. There were nineteen collec- 
tions made from sixteen stations representing four different 
habitats — ten lakes, four ponds, one river and one brook. All 
except two stations (lakes) were in the Uinta Mountains. The 
stations ranged in elevation from about 9000 to 10,500 feet in 
the Uinta Mountains and from 9030 to 9369 feet in the Wasatch 

Seven species are represented, all belonging to the genus 
Pisidium. Six species were taken from the waters of the Uinta 
Mountains and three from those of the Wasatch Mountains. 
The names of species are revised in the light of present knowl- 
edge. There were 352 complete specimens and 87 single valves. 
Pisidium casertanum (Poli) (87%) were taken in all nineteen 
collections ; P. ferrugineum Prime form medianum Sterki were 
found in six lakes and two ponds; P. variabile Prime in three 
lakes ; P. lilljehorgi Clessin and P. subtruncatum Malm each in 
two lakes; and P. obtusale C. Pfeiffer and P. nitidum Jenyns 
each in one lake only. 

Distribution by Bodies of Water 










No. No. 
lots spms. 

No. No. 
lots spms 

P. casertanum 
P. ferrugineum 
f. medianum 
P. variabile 
P. lilljeborgi 
P. subtruncatum 



183 20/2 

34 1/2 

21 27/2 

11 1/2 

1 1/2 


78 10/2 

1 3 

1 3 3/2 

P. obtusale 



P. nitidum 


14 24/2 

Grand total 28 265 74/2 6 81 10/2 

Single valves are represented as fractions. 

3 3/2 

98 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

The senior author has also a few lots from other parts of 

P. milium Held, Parawan reservoir, Parawan Mountains, 
Iron County. 

P. compressum Prime. Utah Lake, Utah County ; center of 
south end of Bear Lake, Cache County; Tooele County, Pleisto- 
cene sediments of Lake Bonneville. 

Sphaerium (Musculium) lacustre (Miiller) form ryckholti 
(Normand), Slough at south end of Fish Lake, Sevier County. 



On the automobile road from Cartagena to Barranquilla there 
is a fresh water lake known as the Cienaga de Luruaco. Stop- 
ping there one day in March, 1952, the junior author found 
numbers of a Pomacea of the subgenus Effusa, remarkable for 
their very small size for this genus, suggesting the specific name. 

Pomacea (Effusa) oligista, new species. Plate 6, fig. 6. 

The shell is quite thin, openly umbilicate, subplanorboid, of 
about 43/2 whorls, the surface rather dull, olive buff, sometimes 
uniform but usually with spiral bands of sepia or nearly black, 
varying in number from two or three to six (as in the type 
specimen, the left hand figure, the upper and lower bands 
faint). The spire is very short, conic. The whorls weakly 
convex at first but very strongly convex above in the last two 
whorls, which are parted by a very deep suture. The base is 
narrowly rounded. Aperture oval, somewhat oblique, the basal 
margin being advanced beyond the upper. Parietal callus thin. 

Height 13.1 mm., diameter 19 mm., length of aperture 11.5 
mm. Type. 

Height 14 mm., diameter 20 mm., length of aperture 12.5 mm. 
Largest paratype. 

A careful study of the Effusa group was made by Dr. H. B. 
Baker in Occasional Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, no. 210, 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 99 

pp. 10-26. The smallest form mentioned by him, P. glauca 
minuscula H.B.B., is larger than our species, and less depressed, 
solid, the suture not so deep, and differently sculptured. Equally 
small young of other races of the P. glauca group compared are 
less depressed and far more solid than P. oligista. The thin 
shell and dull texture of the new form are perhaps its most 
prominent characteristics. 

The spire is more conic and the base much less broadly open 
than in P. {Marisa) cornuarietis (L.), and the shell is much 


Ventridens suppressus (Say) has been reported from Staten 
Island by Hubbard & Smith (1865) as Helix suppressus, by 
Sanderson Smith (1887) as Zonites suppressus, and by Pilsbry 
( 1946 ) . The first two reported it as occurring ' ' not abundantly ' ' 
and "rarely" respectively. Pilsbry alone gave a more definite 
locality, naming Richmond, Staten Island as the site. In a 
personal communication, Dr. Pilsbry states that the source of 
his reference is unknown. It probably is based upon either 
a personal note to the Academy of Natural Sciences or upon a 
lot of shells I have been unable to uncover. The American 
Museum of Natural History has a lot of 45 specimens (^60844) 
from the old Crooke Collection, a lot that has recently been 
checked by Clench. However this lot bears only ** Staten 
Island" as the locality. Dr. Pilsbry informs me that the Acad- 
emy has no specimens of this shell from Staten Island. In 
recent years we have looked for this shell near Richmond Town 
and elsewhere, but have found no trace of it on Staten Island. 

Ventridens ligera (Say) is reported from Staten Island only 
by Pilsbry (1946), a reference probably based upon a lot of 
7 specimens in the American Museum (?^61377), locality ''Staten 
Island," collector unknown. This lot too was recently checked 
by Clench. These shells are the typical ligera, a rather large, 
heavy shell, very small umbilicus and a thick, yellow callus in 
the umbilical region. This species is not reported by S. Smith 

100 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

or Hubbard & Smith; neither is it reported from neighboring- 
Long Island by H. Prime (1894) nor Smith & Prime (1870). 
The Bulletin of the Brooklyn Conchological Club (1907) also 
fails to report it from the New York area. Aside from the 
Pilsbry report noted above, the reference closest to Staten Island 
for this snail is contained in the Gratacap Catalogue (1901). 
Here, as Zonites (Gastrodonta) ligerus, it appears in a lot of 
one specimen from Ked Bank, New Jersey, about 15 miles from 
the southwest tip of Staten Island. I was unable to locate this 
specimen in the American Museum collection. 

On May 10, 1952 the New York Shell Club, on its fourth 
annual outing, found a huge colony of this snail in New Spring- 
ville, not far from Richmond Town. The locality is an old 
plowed field, now lying fallow, on Travis Avenue about one mile 
south of Victory Boulevard, opposite the Olson farm. The 
snails were found at the base of high grasses, crawling on moist 
ground near the old plow furrows. They were found isolated 
or in "nests" containing six to a dozen specimens. The shell 
is very thin, the callus not at all prominent and the perforation 
slightly larger in proportion. Hence they seem to approach the 
form stonei Pilsbry (op. cit., p. 468). On this field, Ventridens 
preferred the moister situations, the drier ones being occupied 
by Succinea ovalis (Say), its most prominent associate. In 
addition we found small numbers of the typically dwarfed New 
York City forms of Mesodon thyroidus (Say). In the small 
woods bordering the field, we collected Carychium exiguum 
(Say), Zonitoides arhoreus (Say) and Discus cronkhitei catskil- 
lensis (Pilsbry). 

It is surprising that so large a colony has not been reported 
previously, but a fact we discovered serves to date the appear- 
ance of this group here and explains its absence from the earlier 
lists. In the Staten Island Museum there is a collection of land 
and fresh water shells made by the late William T. Davis, the 
world famous authority on cicadas and dean of Staten Island 
naturalists. Among these shells, each lot provided with a com- 
plete label written in precise, neat script, there appear three 
lots collected in New Springville : Succinea ovalis collected July 
19, 1891, Succinea ovalis collected March 12, 1921, and Mesodon 
thyroidus collected April 23, 1933. Apparently New Springville 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 101 

was a favorite collecting spot of Davis's and the lots collected 
show that he did not fail to notice the larger and medium sized 
land mollusks from this area. Hence I believe we are safe in 
assuming that this colony of V. ligera stonei must have appeared 
on Travis Avenue at some time subsequent to April 1933. 
Though there are no data to support me, we can guess that it 
was introduced on seed or crops from the area of the drainage of 
Delaware Bay. 

Pilsbry puts his form stonei 1889 in the synonymy of ligera 
and in a personal communication (May 15, 1952) states: "The 
form with very thin or wanting internal callus is occasionally 
met in places deficient in lime. ' ' However the lot in the Ameri- 
can Museum noted above indicates that the heavy-callused typi- 
cal ligera as well as the thin-callused form stonei has occurred 
in Staten Island, where very little limestone occurs on the sur- 
face. Thus the strong possibility^ exists that in stonei we are 
faced with a valid subspecies, or perhaps even a species. At all 
events I cannot agree that stonei is simple synonym of ligera. 

Besides to Dr. Pilsbry, who is always ready to give generously 
of his time and invaluable advice, my warmest thanks are due 
to Mr. Fred "Weir, who helped me in my search in the rich 
American Museum collection, and to Miss Mathilde Weingartner 
of the Staten Island Museum, who kindly permitted me to ex- 
amine the valuable Davis collection. 

References Cited 

Brooklyn Conchological Club, Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov. 

Grata CAP, Louis Pope. 1901. Catalogue of the Binney and 

Bland Collection in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, article 23. 
Hubbard, J. W., and Smith, Sanderson. 1865. Catalogue of 

the Mollusks of Staten Island, New York. Ann. Lye. of Nat. 

Hist. New York, vol. 8, no. 4 & 5, pp. 151-154. 
Pilsbry, Henry A. 1946. Land Mollusca of North America. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., monograph no. 3, vol. II, part I. 

. May 15, 1952. Personal communication to author. 

Prime, Henry. 1894. Catalogue of Land Shells of Long Island, 

New York. Nautilus, vol. 8, p. 69f. 
Smith, Sanderson. 1887. Catalogue of the Mollusca of Staten 

Island. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assoc, of Staten Island, Extra no. 5. 

102 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

Smith, Sanderson, and Prime, Temple. 1870. Report on the 
Molluscs of Long Island, New York and its Dependencies. 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 9, pp. 377-407. 


Everyone who collects sea shells finds himself with duplicates 
on hand. What to do with them is never a serious problem but 
it does present certain alternatives worth considering" as ex- 
pressed in the question, "What is the best thing to do with 
them?" The disposal of duplicate shells from any collection 
can also be tied in with the fact that each year there is an 
oncoming wave of population, some five or six million, depending 
on the annual birth rate, made up entirely of young individuals 
who have never seen a shell or who, if they have, may know 
relatively little about them, because unfortunately malacology 
is not one of the subjects to which much attention is devoted in 
the grade schools and the high schools of our nation and there 
is where most formal education stops for the majority of the 

With these two thoughts in mind, I have found a present 
solution that gives me some pleasure and satisfaction in its 
pursuit, enabling me in one gesture to dispose of my duplicates, 
and at the same time initiate others into the mysteries of 
malacology, starting with the collection of sea shells which is 
its natural point of origin. 

For example, once I collected all kinds of shells but soon my 
shelves got so crowded I decided to specialize in cones, so now 
(except for a few beautiful specimens) all I keep are species 
of genus Conns. 

Every time I go to Sanibel I bring home several bushels of all 
sorts of shells in the back of my car, and the trips I have made 
to the Caribbean and to the Pacific have inevitably ended with 
a large supply of excess shells. Just giving these away indi- 
vidually or by the handful seems unorganized and relatively 
ineffectual. Accordingly some years ago I hit on the following 
plan: I save old boxes and paper bags of suitable size and fill 
them with an assortment of common shells (all duplicates, of 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 103 

course) and into them I put a leaflet I have had printed which 
gives a little information about them and a few suggestions which 
the interested beginner may choose to follow up. These I dis- 
tribute whenever and wherever I find anyone who might be 
interested. For example, invalids, shut-ins, children in hos- 
pitals, bored people and persons who have limited resources and 
few interests are all suitable candidates for this little present 
which may be considered the nucleus of a collection (if they 
wish to extend it), with a small chart or blueprint outlining an 
approach the receptive individual may take and follow if he 
chooses to do so. Any old wide-mouthed bottle or jar or cello- 
phane bag or cardboard container will do to hold the shells. 
I put in anjrwhere from twenty to fifty, usually one or two of 
each species and maybe a dozen genera, enclose the printed 
leaflet and let it go at that. I am often delighted to find that 
this suggestion and encouragement was just enough to make a 
beginning and start another individual towards that fascinating 
sub -department of general biology (and adult education, if you 
please), commonly known as " Conchology, " but more properly 
called "Malacology." 

I suppose the difference between the conehologist so-called 
and the malacologist is one of degrees, but it seems to me suitable 
that every child in the United States might properly be exposed 
to the virus of shell collecting sometime during his stay at the 
first eight grades or his shorter sojourn in the four years of 
high school or preparatory school. The amazing thing to me, 
and this I can state as a scientific fact, is that in twenty-five 
years of collecting and distributing shells among my friends and 
acquaintances, / have never once encountered a child that did 
not "take to them naturally" and like them. Thus, children 
universally repeat in the life of the present individual the 
ancient history of our race as we know it from evidence encoun- 
tered in the prehistoric kitchen-middens and the tomb treasures 
found everywhere on the face of the earth, from Chinese cave 
relics to the shell treasures unearthed in the burial sites of the 
mysterious Mound-Builders of the Mississippi, Tennessee, and 
Ohio River valleys. 

I enclose a printed leaflet on studying shells with each parcel 
of shells. It begins — 

104 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

Here are a few shells. I suggest that you take each one in 
your hand and look it over. Some shells are naturally small 
and do not grow much larger than these ; others are the young of 
larger species and might have developed into larger shells. There 
are five easy things you can do with shells : 1. Look at them. 2. 
Draw them. 3. Study and try to classify them. 4. Eead about 
them. 5. Some people like to make things out of shells. 

Then it goes on to give the means of some elementary books, 
such as Baily 's edition of Keep 's West American Shells, Aldrich 
& Snyder's Florida Sea Shells and others. Then about the 
classes of shells, Cephalopods, Gastropods, Chitons, Scaphopods 
and Pelecypods. I shall be glad to send copies of this leaflet to 
anyone interested. It can be modified to suit different localities. 


His first ninety years. — Dr. Pilsbry, who has been senior 
editor of The Nautilus since its beginning, 64 years ago, ar- 
rived at his 90th birthday on a Sunday, Dee. 7, 1952. The fol- 
lowing day the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
gave a tea in his honor, and presented him with a life member- 
ship. Everybody hoped that he would enjoy it for the next nine 
decades. Dr. Pilsbry spent Christmas with his daughters in 
Lantana, Florida, and will return to Philadelphia with the 
spring. — H. B. B. 

Federal regulations on importing living mollusks. — Free 
copies of these regulations may be obtained by writing to the 
Division of Information, Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, Department of Agriculture, "Washington 25, D. C. 
The regulations prohibit the importation of living land and 
fresh-water mollusks into the United States, except by special 
permit which may be obtained by writing to the Chief of the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Department of 
Agriculture. The regulations do not apply to cleaned, dead 
or preserved shells nor to seashells or other marine mollusks. — 
R, Tucker Abbott. 

The Branham Shell Museum, Fort Myers Beach, Florida, 
opened to the public November 15th, the hours being 1 to 5 
daily except Monday. All who are interested in shells, either 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 105 

for scientific study or as decorative objects, are cordially invited 
to visit the Museum. — Mrs. Hugh Branham. 

The New York Shell Club Notes, No. 7, March 1952, con- 
tains the narrative of a trip by Jack H. McLellan to the original 
and only known locality of Triodopsis plat y say oides (Brooks), 
in Coopers Rock State Forest, Monongalia Co., West Virginia. 
A full account of this rugged spot is given. 

Egypt. Dr. Henry van der Schalie of the University of 
Michigan Museum of Zoology is on a visit to Egypt, for the study 
of fresh water mollusks. 

L. A. BuRRY. Notice of the death of this well known collector 
of Pompano, Florida, has been received. His friends and cor- 
respondents will miss him sorely. 


Primitive fossil gastropods and their bearing on gastropod 
CLASSIFICATION. By J. Brookes Knight (Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
vol. 117, no. 13, 56 pp., 10 text-figs, and 2 pis. 1952). A tribula- 
tion to the student of fossil mollusks is the fact that, unlike the 
skeleton of a vertebrate, the relatively simple shell or test of a 
snail gives so few clues to the animal's amazing complexities. 
For this reason, one can understand why many conservative 
paleontologists have been satisfied to assign most of their shells 
to some major group of living mollusks. Knight goes to the 
other extreme, and on the basis of six (or 8?) admittedly bi- 
lateral muscle-scars, proposes to revolutionize the division of 
the MoUusca into classes. Of course, even though the time from 
Cambrian to Recent may be only a fraction of the total span 
of living things (or even of mollusks), a zoologist is willing to 
admit that a Cambrian snail possibly may have been bilaterally 
symmetric internallj', although, on the sole basis of its muscle- 
scars, he might prefer the ungrammatic "Scotch verdict of not 
proven." One of the outstanding eccentricities of the gastro- 
pods is their repeated development, in widely diverse groups, 
of some degree of at least external symmetry', either with patelli- 

106 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

form shells or, even more markedly, in naked slugs. On the 
other hand, one of the more constant characteristics of the 
phylum Mollusca, outside Lankester's grade (subphylum) Iso- 
pleura (Polyplacophora ^), is the secretion of the principal 
exoskeleton,^ mainly by the mantle periphery, around (or away 
from) one or two centers. For these reasons, to infer "that the 
eight-segmented shell of the polyplacophoran was merely the 
single shell of the monoplacophoran separated into eight seg- 
ments . . . ," seems almost as inconsequent to this zoologist as 
does, to many geologists, Scharif 's erection and destruction of a 
mighty Atlantic mountain-chain, largelj^ on the basis of a few 
recent clausiliids. Nevertheless, the data in this real contribu- 
tion are presented excellently. — H. Burrington Baker. 

Revision of the pelecypod genus Echinochama. By David 
Nicol (Jour, of Paleontology, Sept., 1952, pp. 803-817, 2 plates). 
Five species and three subspecies are recognized, all in American 
Miocene to Recent faunas. Two of them are from the Pacific 
coast : Echinochama arcinella calif ornica Dall, Lower California 
to Panama, living, and E. a. olssoni Nicol, Burica Peninsula, 
R.P., Pliocene or Pleistocene. E. cornuta (Conrad) is the only 
species found living within the United States, South Carolina 
to Florida. It has usually been reported as "Chama arcinella'' 
or as a variety of arcinella (as in Nautilus, 51: 79) ; but the 
typical E. arcinella (L.) is Caribbean. 

Nomenclatural review op genera and subgenera of 
Chamidae. By David Nicol. (Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. 42, 
pp. 154r-156). A list with bibliographic references, type desig- 
nations, and brief comments. 

A NEW glycymerid from the Western Atlantic. By David 
Nicol (Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 42: 266, 267. 1952). Gly- 
cymeris spectralis, n. sp., is widely spread, from Cape Lookout, 
S.C. to Central America, the type from Lake Worth, Boynton, 
Fla. It is a small species, about 20 mm. long, with narrow, 
slightly raised radial ribs and radial striae. — H. A. P. 

ern British Columbia. By Loris S. Russell (Ann. Rep. Nat. Mus. 

1 Chitons; the "Aplaeophora" are not closely related and may not be 

2 Shell, valves, or shell and operculum. 

Jan., 1953] the nautilus 107 

Canada for 1850-51, pp. 120-133, 4 plates, 10 text figs. 1952). 
The age of this Tertiary formation of the Flathead River VaUey 
is thought from the evidence now available to be Middle Eocene, 
several species being comparable to Bridger mollusks. The 
species are all new, belonging to the genera Elliptio, Lampsilis 
Sphaerium, Stagnicola, Planorhis, Oyraulus and Goniohasis. 
The "Planorhis" kishenehnensis is a peculiar, large (32 mm.) 
form, somewhat like a depressed Australorhis, which does not 
seem referable to any recognized American genus. — H. A. P. 

Description of a new pelecypod of the genus Lima from 
deep water otf central California. By Leo George Hertlein 
(Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 27: 377-381, pi. 20, figs. 12,13. 1952). 
Lima (Acesta) mori is a large species, height 61.8 mm., from 
off San Mateo Co. in 690-800 fms. 

Shells from the bird guano of Southeast Farallon Island, 
California, with description of a new species of Liotia. By 
Allyn G. Smith (Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 27: 383-387). 
Southeast Farallon is a bare and rugged rocky island about a 
mile long and half a mile wide, lying 27 miles west of the Golden 
Gate. It is noted for the vast numbers of sea birds nesting 
there. Good numbers of shells were found in the guano in 
some places, 30 species being listed, many of them species living 
at moderate depths ordinarily taken only by dredging. Liotia 
farallonensis, n. sp., a fine species of 12.9 mm. diameter, is de- 
scribed and figured. 

A rare species of chiton from Pioneer Seamount off central 
California. By A. G. Smith and G. D. Hanna (Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., 27: 389-392). The peculiar and little known Placiphorella 
(Placophoropsis) pacifica Berry was brought up on rocks 
dredged from this seamount. It was previously known only 
from Alaska. It is fully described and for the first time figured. 
— H. A. P. 

The scaphopod mollusks collected by the first Johnson- 
Smithsonian Expedition. By William K. Emerson (Smiths. 
Misc. Coll. 117, no. 6, 1952). Seventeen species are recorded, all 
from stations in the Puerto Riean Deep. Dentalium (Episiphon) 
johnsoni, n. sp., is described and figured. 

Generic and subgeneric names in the molluscan class 
ScAPHOPODA. By W. K. Emerson (Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 

108 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (3) 

42, No. 9, 1952). The names are listed and genotypes indicated. 
The subgenus Antalis is credited to Herrmannsen, though that 
author merely listed a pre-Linnean name, gave no definition 
whatever and mentioned no species. 


type species of Fustiaria and Pseudantalis. By William K. Em- 
erson (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 65: 201-208). A critical 
and apparently exhaustive study of involved type designations. 
In conclusion: "Pseudantalis (genotype Dentalium ruhescens 
Deshayes, 1825) is a junior subjective synonym of Fustiaria 
(genotype Dentalium circinatiim Sowerby, 1823)." — H. A. P. 


Inflation is still with us. This year, the costs of printing 
The Nautilus have been raised again. Even before the in- 
crease, the total intake from subscriptions did not equal these 
charges. As our readers are aware, The Nautilus has no en- 
dowment, pays no salaries, and declares no dividends. We give 
our time gladly, but cannot ajfford monetary losses. 

Beginning with volume 67 (July, 1953), the subscription rate 
will become $3.00 a year to domestic subscribers, including 
Canada, all American nations and the Phillipines, and $3.15 to 
other foreign subscribers. Single copies will be 75 cents. Re- 
newals to subscriptions for 1953 will be at the old rate, but new 
subscriptions beginning with the January, 1953, number will be 
$2.75, and those beginning with the April number, $3.00. — 
H. A. P. and H. B. B. 

Imogene Strickler Robertson (1872-1953) 

The Nautilus 

Vol. 66 APRIL, 1953 No. 4 



Department of Zoology and Allan Hancock Foundation, 
University of Southern California 

During the period from March, 1950 through April, 1952 
various invertebrates were collected on a small coral island off 
shore from Parguera, Puerto Rico. In four of these collections, 
an interesting tectibranch was encountered, in all, about 30 
specimens. Upon study, this form proved to be an undescribed 
species of the genus Pleurohranchus. 

As pointed out by Abbott (1949) a great deal of confusion 
exists in the classification of the subfamily Pleurobranchinae, 
especially those forms which have been associated with the genus 
Pleurohrmichus Cuvier, 1805. In this regard the writer agrees 
with Thiele (1931) on the separation of the subgenera. The 
subgenus Pleurohranchus s.s. Cuvier, 1805, is made up of those 
forms with an anteriorly located shell, and with female orifice 
and penis not separated; the subgenus Oscanius (Leach) Gray, 
1847, has forms with a posteriorly located shell, and with the 
female orifice separated from penis by fleshy lip or space. 
Susania Gray, 1857 stands as a synonym of Oscanius. 

The subgenus Pleurohranchopsis Verrill, 1900 is comprised 
of those with a rudimentary or poorly developed shell. The 
species here described is considered a member of the subgenus 

1 Contribution from the Allan Hancock Foundation No. 109. 


110 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Pleurohranchus (Oscanius) amarillius new species. 

Body. — The living animal is elongately rounded and dorsally 
convex, the holotype measuring 37.5 mm. in length and 25.5 mm. 
in width (fig. 1). The mantle is larger than the foot, in a 
slightly contracted, preserved specimen with the mantle 36 by 
23 mm. The foot measures 24 by 15 mm. The anterior edge 
of the mantle has a very shallow, indistinct median sinus. The 
dorsum appears to be smooth, but is covered with microscopic 
(approximately 0.1 mm.) papillae which may be retracted into 
tiny dorsal perforations. The color of the living animal, young 
and adults, is a uniform bright yellowish orange. The entire 
body is very soft and semi-translucent, suggesting a mass of 
"orange gelatin"; it is more translucent toward the edge of 
the dorsum. Clusters of small, crystalline spicules are embedded 
throughout the dorsum. These spicules are variable in size from 
0.3 mm. to 0.1 mm. in length by 0.07 to 0.01 mm. in width. As 
indicated in fig. 4, the form and arrangement of these spicules 
are variable. 

Head. — The velum extends anteriorly beyond the foot, is 
rounded anteriorly and roughly trapezoid in outline. The lat- 
eral edges of the velum are grooved (fig. 2). The color of the 
veil and head is the same yellow-orange as that of the body. 
During locomotion, the veil may be extended completely beyond 
the anterior margin of the dorsum. The mouth is located at the 
median, ventral junction of the veil and body. The two rhino- 
phores arise slightly dorsal to and anterior to the deeply set, 
black eyes. The rhinophores are elongated, cylindro-conic struc- 
tures, each being a loosely rolled plate, the margins external, the 
lower overlapping the upper. In life, the rhinophores are very 

Ctenidium. — The branchial plume lies on the right side in 
the space between the foot and the mantle ; in life the gill may 
be completely covered by the mantle or extended posteriorly and 
laterally. The plume may be extended beyond the posterior edge 
of the mantle or contracted to less than one-half the body length. 
The posterior third of the plume is free from the body, being 
supported by a membrane. Arising from the primary rachis is 
an average of 20 pairs of secondary pinnules. Each pinnule 

April, 1953] the nautilus HI 

arises from a swollen area on the rachis. Each pinnule is 
plumose in form. Twenty-two is the maximum number of pin- 
nules observed. At the base of the membrane supporting the 
posterior third of the ctenidium is located the anal opening. 
Directly anterior to the base of the plume and dorsal to the 
genital eminence is found the external opening of the excretory 

Shell. — The shell (fig. 3) is small, calcareous, auriculiform, 
and semi-quadrate in outline. It is approximately one-seventh 
the total length of the animal ; in an alcohol specimen 33 mm. in 
length the shell was 5 mm. long by 2.9 mm. wide. It is thin, flat, 
only slightly convex in last whorl. The spire is short, but con- 
spicuous, with about 2.1/2 whorls. The color in life is white 
with a yellowish tint. The shell is embedded in the dorsum ap- 
proximately one-fifth the length from the posterior edge. It 
lies slightly to the left of the mid-dorsal line. 

Mandihles. — The mandibles are elongate, flat, squared pos- 
teriorly, and rounded on the more narrow anterior edge, the 
dimensions are approximately 2.6 mm. by 1.3 mm. Each man- 
dible is composed of a closely set series of platelets. There are 
approximately 115 rows of these platelets with approximately 
85 in each row in the wide part of the mandible. Each platelet 
is approximately 0.9 mm. in length by 0.19 mm. in width at the 
extended articulation points (fig. 7). Each platelet possesses 
a prominent, median denticle with from 1 to 3 lateral, smaller 
denticles on each side. 

Radula. — The radula is located in an extensible proboscis, 
extendable to about one-fourth the body length. In an alcohol 
specimen 20 mm. in body length, the radular plate was 5 mm. 
in length by 7 mm. in greatest width. The outline of the flat- 
tened radular plate is pyramoidal, the teeth are very closely set 
anteriorl}" and more widely spread posteriorly. The radula is 
composed of from 180 to 190 rows of teeth with about 400 teeth 
in each row; the formula is 200-0-200. The teeth are long, 
slender, and slightly arcuate with an uncinate apex. Below the 
apical tooth there are from 2 to 10 smaller denticles. Figures 
5, 6, 8, and 9 indicate the variations in this dentition. The teeth 
of the anterior rows average 0.25 mm. in length, the lateral teeth 
being slightly wider than the median teeth (figs. 8, 9). The 

112 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

median posterior teeth average about 0.10 mm. in length, and 
the more elongate lateral teeth average 0.30 mm. in length. 

Genitalia. — The external genitalia are located on a papilla, 
5 mm. in width, on the right side of the body anterior and 
ventral to the ctenidium. The female openings are located in a 
depression posterior to the conical penis; the vagina is anterior 
to the oviduct-nidamental opening (fig. 10). The internal geni- 
tal mass is very conspicuous. The hermaphroditic duct leads 
directly from the posteriorly located hermaphroditic gland over 
the surface of the large nidamental gland to a foliate, oblong, 

2 mm. long prostate gland. From the prostate gland the vas 
deferens extends to the base of the penis with a few undulations. 
At approximately two-thirds the length of the vas deferens, a 

3 mm. long diverticulum arises. This structure seems to be a 
seminal vesicle, "poche annexe du canal deferent" of Vayssiere. 
From the point of connection with the prostate gland, the 
hermaphroditic duct proceeds ventrally as the oviduct to open 
in close junction with the nidamental aperture. The nida- 
mental-albumen gland complex is a very large, lobate structure ; 
in an alcohol specimen 40 mm. in length, this complex was 13.0 
mm. in length. Anterior and slightlj^ ventral to the oviducal 
opening is the vaginal opening. The vagina is approximately 
0.25 mm. in length and opens dorsally into an ovate sperma- 
totheca of about 0.17 mm. in length. From approximately the 
middle of the vagina, there arises a posteriorly extended tube 
which terminates in a spermatocyst, ' ' poche copulatrice annexe ' ' 
of Vayssiere. The vaginal and oviduct-nidamental openings en- 
ter a common crescent-shaped depression on the posterior half 
of the genital papilla. 

Type locality. — Isla de la Gata, Parguera, Puerto Rico, April 
16, 1952. 

Types. — Holotype U.S.N.M. No. 574844 ; 2 paratypes and shell 
U.S.N.M. No. 574845; 12 paratypes and paratype shell in the 
Allan Hancock Foundation collections. 

Remarks. — This species has been found by the writer and 
collector, only in the type locality. This small, 1-acre, coral- 
formed island lies about 1 mile off shore. The Pleurohranchus 
was found under coral rocks and fragments of dead Acropora 
which lie on beds of the finger coral, Porites porites. As indi- 



Fleurohranclius {Oscanius) ainarilliiis Mattox 



Plcitrohmnchiis {()scaniii.'<} ainariUui.s Mattox. Explanation on page H?-. 

April, 1953] the nautilus 113 

cated for P. ailanticus, by Abbott, these animals were normally 
found resting on the regions of the dead zooids. They have 
been found only in shallow, 1 to 3 feet deep, water on the coral 
flats around this island; they probably occur on other nearby 
islands but have not as yet been observed. 

Pleurohranchus (Oscanius) amarillius seem to be most closely 
related to Pleurohranchus qnadridens (Morch) described from 
nearby St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. The excellent description 
of P. quadridens by Bergh (1897-98) leaves no doubt as to the 
validity of that species and also points out differences from the 
form here under consideration. Both P. quadridens and ama- 
rillus are orange as adults as are at least eight other members 
of the genus. The young of quadridens is recorded as being 
cinnamon in color, a color not observed for amarillius. The more 
numerous pinnae on the ctenidium, more elongate body, fewer 
teeth on the radula (only 150 rows with 70-0-70 formula), and 
the shorter shell of quadridens separate it from amarillius. 
The radular teeth of quadridens are elongated as in amarillius 
but have fewer sub-denticles and seem to be longer in proportion. 
The large nidamental gland complex seems to be unique for 
amarillius, Bergh gives 6.5 mm. as the diameter of this complex 
for quadridens. The presence of the seminal vesicle, the color 
of the body, long radular teeth, radular formula, form of the 
shell, smooth dorsum, and the straight-sided crystalline spicules 
will separate P. amarillius from the other American species of 
this group. 

Explanation of Plates 9 and 10 

Fig. 1. Photograph of dorsal view of living animal in Petri 
culture dish. (Plate 9; figs. 2-10 on pi. 10.) 

Fig. 2. Lateral view of animal. An, anus; ct, ctenidium 
or gill ; ge, genital papilla ; ne, nephridiopore ; rh, rhinophore ; 
sh, position of shell; ve, velum. Scale equals 5 mm. 

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of the shell. Scale 0.5 mm. 

Fig. 4. Spicules of dorsum. Scale 0.1 mm. 

Fig. 5. Posterior, lateral radular tooth. (Scales for figs. 
5-9 equal 0.05 mm.) 

Fig. 6. Posterior, median radular tooth. 

Fig. 7. Mandibular denticles. 

Fig. 8. A, anterior median radular tooth. B and C, varia- 
tions in denticulations. 

Fig. 9. Anterior, lateral radular tooth. 

114 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Fig. 10. The genitalia. Hd, hermaphroditic duct, hg, herma- 
phroditic gland ; ni, nidamental-albumen gland complex ; ov, ovi- 
duct ; pe, penis ; pr. prostate gland ; sc, spermatocyst ; st, sperma- 
totheca ; sv, seminal vesicle ; va, vagina ; vd, vas deferens. Scale 
equals 1 mm. 


Abbott, E,. T. 1949. A New Florida Species of the Tectibranch 

Genus Pleiirohranchus. Nautilus, vol. 62 (3), pp. 73-78, 

pi. 5. 
Bergh, R. 1897-1898. Malacologisehe Untersuchungen. Die 

Pleurobranchiden. Semper 's Reisen Arch, der Philippinen, 

Bd. 7, Absch. 1, Leif. 1-3, pp. 1-158, pis. 1-11. 
Dall, W. H., and Simpson, C. T. 1901. The Mollusca of Porto 

Rico. U. S. Fish Commission Bull, for 1900, vol. 1, pp. 351- 

524 (p. 367), pis. 53-58. 
MacFarland, F. M. 1909. The Opisthobranchiate Mollusca of 

the Branner-Agassiz Expedition to Brazil. Leland Stanford 

Junior Univ. Publ., Univ. series, no. 2, pp. 1-104 (pp. 58- 

64), 19 pis. 
MoRCH, M. 0. 1863. Contributions a la Faune Malacologique 

des Antilles Danoises. Jour, de Conchyl., s. 3, T. 3, vol. 11, 

pp. 21-43. 
PiLSBRY, H. A. 1896. Tryon's Manual of Conchology, vol. 16, 

pp. 1-262, 74 pis. 
Thiele, J. 1931. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtier- 

kunde, vol. 2, pp. 377-778 (pp. 418-420). 
Vayssiere, a. 1898. Monographic de la Famille des Pleuro- 

branchides. Annales Sci. Nat. Zool. et Paelo., vol. 8, pp. 209- 

402, pis. 13-28. 



The land snails of the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain have 
been less well known than those of any comparable area in eastern 
North America. There are two reasons for this: first, there 
have been few collectors there, and second, visitors have not 
known how to collect in that region. 

Because of the humid climate, dead leaves rot rapidly and do 
not form a deep ground cover in which snails can hide. The 

April, 1953] the nautilus 115 

snails crawl at night and burrow into the sandy soil to hide dur- 
ing the daytime. Unless one is able to resort to night collecting 
it is very difficult to find them in the woods. It is only where 
man, in his untidiness, has provided shelter that one finds them 
abundant during the day. Old pasteboard boxes thrown into 
the woods and the paper behind signboards provide good col- 
lecting places. But it is in the towns that one can be most cer- 
tain of success. Here, under old boards and paper on vacant 
lots and waste ground, one may find them extremely abundant. 
I have collected over five hundred snails from the underside of 
a single old board in such a location. 

I should warn the reader of the dangers of collecting in towns. 
There is a surprisingly large number of people who, instead of 
satisfying their curiosity by coming to me and asking what I 
am doing, will call the police. For the most part the police have 
been pleasant. But there was the time at Courtland, Virginia, 
when someone told the constable that there was a crazy man 
loose in the town. The constable rounded up a posse of about 
ten men before approaching me, in the event I should become 
violent. At Kinston, North Carolina, a man called the police, 
and then argued with them for at least fifteen minutes that I 
was a dangerous character to be securely locked up. He seemed 
to believe that the pose of snail collector was the favorite dis- 
guise of foreign spies. After the police left, he followed me 
around and carefully jotted down my license number as I drove 
out of town. 

In the present paper, only records for the species which are 
endemic to the coastal plain, or whose occurrence there is 
sporadic or little understood, have been cited. The many widely 
distributed species which occur there have not been listed. 

Helix aspersa (Miiller) 

Virginia : Norfolk Co. : found on several vacant lots in Norfolk. 

Helicella (Helicopsis) striata (Muller) 

Virginia : Norfolk Co. : very common on vacant lots in the 
older part of Norfolk and on dumps in the suburban areas. 

This species was determined by Dr. Fritz Haas. 

116 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Polygyra septemvolva volvoxis (Pfr.) 

South Carolina : Horry Co. : roadside, Nixon Cross Roads, 
3 miles southwest of Little River. Georgetown Co. : near Pee 
Dee River, Georgetown. Charleston Co. : near Cooper River, 
west of Mt. Pleasant; near Cooper River, north of Lee Street, 

On Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, where Mr. Ralph W. 
Jackson collected a large series of this species, all specimens 
opened had a well developed internal lamina. Along the Cooper 
River, about one-third of the shells had either a lamina or a row 
of small papillae. At Georgetown and near Little River, none 
of the shells opened showed any trace of an internal lamina. 
Quite evidently the internal lamina is not a valid specific char- 
acter, and P. septemvolva and P. cereolus are one species. 

Polygyra postelliana (Bland) 

North Carolina : Beaufort Co. : along RR. 1 mile west of 
Belhaven ; Leechville. Pamlico Co. : Vandemere ; Hobucken. 
Carteret Co. : Roe ; Sealevel ; Davis ; Marshalburg ; Barkers 
Island ; Atlantic Beach ; Newport ; western edge of Morehead 
City. Onslow Co. : Swansboro. Columbus Co. : under logs, 3.2 
miles northwest of Ash. 

Some of the lots recorded above could be referred to P. p. 
Carolina Pilsbry, but since most large lots show complete inter- 
gradation, an attempt to maintain that subspecies seems im- 

Stenotrema iarhatum (Clapp) 

North Carolina : Nash Co. : swamp along Tar River, west of 
Rocky Mount. Chowan Co. : Edenton. Edgecombe Co. : near 
Tar River, Princeville. Pamlico Co. : Mimiesott Beach. Bladen 
Co. : Cape Fear River Bluff, Elizabethtown. Johnston Co. : near 
Neuse River, Smithfield. 

Mesodon appressa f. sculptior (Chadwick) 

Virginia : Norfolk Co. : waste ground, Norfolk. 

Mesodon appressa f . laevior Pilsbry 

North Carolina : Pamlico Co. : Vandemere. Carteret Co. : 
Atlantic. Sampson Co. : Clinton. 

April, 1953] the nautilus 117 

Mesodon perigraptus (Pilsbry) 

South Carolina : Horry Co. : 1 mile east of Conway. 
Darlington Co. : Darlington. Lee Co. : Bishopville. George- 
town Co. : Georgetown. 

Triodopsis juxtidens (Pilsbry) 

Virginia : York Co. : Yorktown. Elizabeth City Co. : Fox Hill. 
Nansemond Co. : cane-brake, 0.5 mile west of Driver ; just east 
of Suffolk. Norfolk Co.: Norfolk; South Norfolk. Princess 
Anne Co. : 1 mile northwest of Herberts. North Carolina : 
Hertford Co. : Winton. Nash Co. : Rocky Mount. Edgecombe 
Co. : near Tar River, Princeville. Pamlico Co. : Minnesott Beach. 
Cumberland Co. : Fayetteville. Bladen Co. : Cape Fear River 
bluff, Elizabethtown. 

At a number of localities in western Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, T. juxtidens has been found associated with T. trideritata 
and was readily separated. I believe it to be a distinct species, 
and not a subspecies of T. tridentata as originally described. 

Triodopsis fallax (Say) 

Virginia : York Co. : Yorktown. New Kent Co. : Providence 
Forge. Sussex Co. : Wakefield. Southampton Co. : Franklin ; 
Courtland. North Carolina : Gates Co. : pinewoods, 2 miles 
southeast of Roduco. South Carolina : Sumter Co. : State- 

Over most of North Carolina, T. fallax is found only in the 
Piedmont, but near the Virginia line its range moves eastward 
onto the Coastal Plain. In Virginia it is found as far east as 
the Miocene Escarpment. 

Specimens from Stateburg, South Carolina, have the internal 
tubercle on the columella, characteristic of T. fallax, but show 
evidence of admixture with T. vannostrandi in the large number 
of closely coiled whorls, and in the angular periphery of some 

Triodopsis vannostrandi (Bland) 

South Carolina : Richland Co. : Columbia. Lexington Co. : 
West Columbia; Lexington; lumber yard, Batesburg. Calhoun 
Co. : Fort Motte ; St. Matthews. Orangeburg Co. : Orangeburg ; 

118 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

North. Aiken Co. : vacant lot, east side of Aiken ; just west of 
Aiken; along RR., Warrenville. Barnwell Co.: Williston. 
Bamberg^ Co. : Denmark; Bamberg. Dorchester Co. : St. George. 
Allendale Co. : Allendale. Georgia : Richmond Co. : vacant lot, 
1448 North Reynolds St., Augusta. 

T. vannostrandi intergrades completely with T. hopeto7iensis. 
But this intergradation appears to be the result of extensive 
hybridization rather than being the gradient between two sub- 
species. The purest vannostrandi lot is probably that from 
Allendale. These are large, high spired, with 6 to 6yo whorls. 
A number of specimens have the angular periphery of gonio- 
soma, which should probably be treated as a form rather than 
as a subspecies. Other lots, notably those from Augusta, Co- 
lumbia, Denmark, and the east side of Aiken, are small, low 
spired, with 5 to 51/2 whorls. They differ from T. hopetonensis 
only in having the rib striae a little courser, the umbilicus a 
little smaller, and the teeth a little heavier, but they would un- 
doubtedly be classified as hopetonensis if considered by them- 
selves. A number of specimens from Denmark have the angular 
periphery of goniosoma. Some other lots are intermediate, 
notably those from Batesburg, where the complete range of 
intergrades occur together. 

Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth) 

Virginia : Nansemond Co. : marsh, along Nansemond River, 
Suffolk. Norfolk Co.: Norfolk; South Norfolk; Deep Creek. 
Princess Anne Co. : Ocean Park. North Carolina : Currituck 
Co.: Moj^ock; Point Harbor; Coinjock; Poplar Branch; Pow- 
ells Point ; Currituck ; swamp, 3 miles' southeast of Shawboro. 
Camden Co. : South Mills ; Old Trap ; Camden ; Shiloh ; bank of 
Pasquotank River, 3.3 miles southwest of Camden. Pasquotank 
Co. : Elizabeth City. Perquimans Co. : Hertford ; Winfall. 
Hertford Co. : Ahoskie. Bertie Co. : Windsor. Pitt Co. : Bethel ; 
near Greenville. Martin Co. : Williamston ; Robersonville. 
"Wayne Co. : Goldsboro ; Mount Olive. Lenoir Co. : Kinston. 
Duplin Co. : Wallace. Onslow Co. : Swansboro ; Jacksonville ; 
Kellum ; Richlands. Jones Co. : Pollocksville. Pender Co. : 
swamp, 13.5 miles northeast of Burgaw; Hempstead. Bladen 
Co. : Elizabethtown. Scotland Co. : Laurinburg. Columbus Co. : 
Tabor City. Brunswick Co. : Seaside ; Southport, near Shallotte ; 
Woodburn. South Carolina: Horry Co.: Conway; Crescent 
Beach ; Myrtle Beach ; Little River ; Cherry Grove Beach. Sum- 

April, 1953] the nautilus 119 

ter Co. : Sumter. Darlington Co. : Darlington. Georgetown Co. : 
Georgetown. Williamsburg Co. : Kingstree. Berkeley Co. : near 
Moncks Corner. Colleton Co., near Canadys; Ashepoo. Rich- 
land Co. : Columbia. 

In North Carolina, T. hopetonensis is found over the entire 
Coastal Plain except the three peninsulas between Albemarle 
Sound and Beaufort. Near the Virginia line, its western limit 
moves eastward, and in Virginia it is found only on the 
Pleistocene land east of the Miocene Escarpment. It apparently 
does not occur north of the James River. 

Triodopsis messana Hubricht 

Maryland : Wicomico Co. : Nanticoke. Somerset Co. : Chance ; 
Princess Anne. North Carolina : Gates Co. : Sunbury. Hali- 
fax Co. : Hobgood. Wilson Co. : Stantonsburg. Nash Co. : 
Rocky Mount. Lenoir Co. : La Grange. Craven Co. : 4 miles 
east of Dover. Sampson Co. : Roseboro ; Clinton. Hoke Co. : 
Raeford. Robeson Co. : roadside, 1.4 miles northwest of Allen- 
ton ; Red Springs ; Fairmont ; Pembroke. Bladen Co. : Clarkton ; 
dump, 1.8 miles west of White Lake ; Bladenboro. Columbus Co. : 
Chadbourn; Fair Bluff; Hallsboro. Brunswick Co.: roadside, 
2.4 miles northwest of Ash. South Carolina : Dillon Co. : Lake 
View. Marion Co. : MuUins. Horry Co. : edge of swamp, 8 
miles north of Cool Spring ; roadside, 3 miles southwest of Little 
River ; Loris ; Homewood. Kershaw Co. : Clio. 

Additional records will be found with the original description 
in The Nautilus, 65: 80. 

Like T. hopetonensis, T. messana in North Carolina is found 
over most of the Coastal Plain, but in Virginia and Maryland it 
is found only on Pleistocene land. In South Carolina, it ap- 
parently does not occur south of the Santee River. 

At Clarkton, North Carolina, there is a form in which the lip 
teeth are well developed but the parietal tooth is absent. 

Triodopsis ohsoleta (Pils.) 

Maryland : Somerset Co. : Crisfield ; near Pocomoke River, op- 
posite Pokomoke City. Worcester Co. : Public Landing, 1.5 
miles southeast of Spence ; Snow Hill ; roadside, 2 miles east of 
Stockton. Virginia : Accomac Co. : Chincoteague ; Saxis ; Hall- 
wood; Onancock; Wachapreague. Northampton Co.: Harbor- 

120 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

ton; Willis Wharf; Bridgeton; Cheriton; Cape Charles; 
Brighton. King William Co. : near Pamunkey River, West Point. 
Norfolk Co. : vacant lots, May Ave., and West Olney Rd., Nor- 
folk ; South Norfolk. North Carolina : Hertford Co. : Winton. 
Perquimans Co. : Hertford. Chowan Co. : Edenton. Dare Co. : 
Wanchese ; Manteo ; beach, 3.6 miles south of Nags Head ; East 
Lake; Manns Harbor; Stumpy Point. Tyrrell Co.: Columbia; 
edge of swamp, 3.5 miles west of Columbia. Washington Co. : 
Plymouth ; swamp, 1.3 miles east of Plymouth. Martin Co. : 
Williamston. Beaufort Co. : edge of swamp, 2.5 miles northeast 
of Chocowinity ; Belhaven ; Swan Quarter. Craven Co. : New 
Bern ; James City. Pamlico Co. : Mesic ; Bayboro ; Grantsboro ; 
Stonewall ; Hobucken ; Oriental ; Vandemere. Carteret Co. : 
Roe; Atlantic; Sealevel; Davis; Harkers Island; Marshallberg ; 
Morehead City ; Atlantic Beach ; Newport. Jones Co. : Trenton. 
Onslow Co. : Swansboro. Sampson Co. : Clinton. Brunswick 
Co. : Shallotte ; Village Point. 

Sinistral specimens were found at Vandemere, Newport, and 
Swansboro, North Carolina. 

With one exception (Clinton, North Carolina, where it is 
probably introduced), all the records for T. ohsoleta are from 
Pleistocene land. It is abundant on the three peninsulas between 
Albemarle Sound and Beaufort. 

Early in my collecting of this species, I noted that it was 
surprisingly uniform with practically no intergradation to T. 
hopetonensis. Occasionally I would find a specimen in which 
the lip teeth were overdeveloped until they were of the size of 
those of T. hopetonensis, but these seemed to be more of the 
nature of freaks rather than intergrades. That is, there were 
occasional intermediate specimens but never intermediate colo- 
nies. Not until my collecting program was nearing completion, 
at Swansboro, North Carolina, did I find T. ohsoleta abundant 
on the marshy ground along the Whiteoak River, while on the 
slope in back T. hopetonensis was found. For the most part, 
the two forms occupied separate areas, but at one place they 
occurred together. Here they could be sorted readily. There 
was no hybridization or intergradation. T. ohsoleta differed 
from T. hopetonensis in being larger, with a lower spire, larger 
umbilicus, and a lighter colored shell, the shell color alone being 
different enough to separate 95% of the specimens. Here was 
proof that T. ohsoleta was not a subspecies of T. hopetonensis as 

April, 1953] the nautilus 121 

it has been originally described, but a distinct species. Its 
true relationships were discovered later at Clinton, North 

At Clinton, North Carolina, in a vacant lot, fine large speci- 
mens of T. obsoleta were found abundant. Two blocks away 
along a railroad T. messana was likewise abundant. On a vacant 
lot, in the intervening block, was found a complete admixture of 
the two species. None of the specimens could be called pure T. 
ohsoleta, or T. messana, but represented varying degrees of inter- 
mediacy. Here the two species had met and hybridized, show- 
ing that T. obsoleta, although looking like a T. hopetonensis 
with reduced teeth, is very closely related to T. messana. 

At Cheriton, Virginia, T. obsoleta is quite typical, with very 
small teeth and large umbilicus. But at most of the other 
localities on the Delmarva Peninsula, it has the small umbilicus 
and larger teeth of the form described as T. hopetonensis 
chincoteaguensis (Pils.). This variation is all in the direction 
of T. messana. In Maryland, T. messana likewise shows varia- 
tion in the direction of T. obsoleta. Quite probably at one time 
there was considerable hybridization between these two species 
in this area. 

On the same day in December, a series of specimens of T. 
obsoleta from two localities and specimens of T. hopetonensis 
from two other localities were examined anatomically. In all 
the specimens of T. obsoleta, the penis was fully developed, but 
in the specimens of T. hopetonensis all had the penis very small 
and immature in appearance. This suggests that a factor in the 
reproductive isolation of these two species may be a difference in 
breeding season. 

In Richmond, Virginia, where T. obsoleta has been introduced, 
it has hybridized freely with T. fallax (Say). Many of the 
resultant progeny are not distinguishable from T. hopetonensis. 

Triodopsis soelneri (J. B. Henderson) 

North Carolina: Bladen Co.: Bladenboro. (For additional 
records see The Nautilus, 64: 67.) 

In the Baldenboro specimens, the outer lip tooth is more 
strongly developed than in any other specimens. 

122 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

T. soelneri has been found both with T. hopetonensis and T. 
messana and there was no hybridization. 

A few years ago a canal was dug through the swamp on the 
north shore of Lake Waceamaw about three hundred yards back 
from the lake shore. The earth removed was used to fill in the 
swamp between the canal and the edge of the lake. This land 
was then subdivided and sold as cottage sites. This operation 
covered up most of the colony of T. soelneri, but on a few of 
the vacant sites there were small holes where the original surface 
had not been covered. In these places they were abundant and 
I was able to collect a good series. But when cottages have been 
built on these sites, and the earth has been smoothed out and 
sown to lawn, the type colony of T. soelneri will be extinct. 

Triodopsis denotata (Fer.) 

North Carolina : Bladen Co. : Cape Fear River bluff, Eliza- 
bethtown. South Carolina : Darlington Co. : flood-plain of 
Pee Dee River, 3 miles east of Mechanicsville. Berkeley Co. : 
floodplain of Santee River, 5.5 miles northwest of St. Stephen. 

Bumina decollata (L.) 

North Carolina : Lenoir Co. : waste ground, Spring Hill & 
South Heritage St., Kinston. Brunswick Co. : Southport. South 
Carolina : Richland Co. : Columbia. Lexington Co. : West Co- 
lumbia. Aiken Co. : Aiken. 

Opeas pyrgula Schmacker & Boettger 
North Carolina : Lenoir Co. : Kinston. 

Mesomphix pilshryi (Clapp) 

South Carolina : Darlington Co. : Darlington. Richland Co. : 

Betinella cryptomphala solida H. B. Baker 

North Carolina : Craven Co. : along RR., 4 miles east of 
Dover. Sampson Co. : Roseboro. Bladen Co. : dump, 1.8 miles 
west of White Lake. Brunswick Co. : roadside, 2.4 miles north- 
west of Ash. South Carolina : Horry Co. : roadside, 3 miles 
southwest of Little River; Homewood; Myrtle Beach. 

April, 1953] the nautilus 123 

Ventridens cerinoideus (Anthony) 

Virginia : York Co. : Yorktown ; Seaford. Warwick Co. : War- 
wick. Sussex Co. : Wakefield. Southampton Co. : Courtland. 
Nansemond Co. : just east of Suffolk. Norfolk Co. : swamp along 
Northwest River, 2 miles south-southwest of Cornland; 1 mile 
south of South Norfolk; edge of swamp, 3 miles south of North 
Landing. North Carolina : Currituck Co. : Moyock ; swamp, 
3 miles southeast of Shawboro. Camden Co. : Camden ; South 
Mills. Pasquotank Co. : marsh, Knobbs Creek, 1 mile north of 
Elizabeth City. Northampton Co. : Jackson. Halifax Co. : Hob- 
good. Washington Co. : Plymouth ; swamp, 1.3 miles east of 
Plymouth. Dare Co. : Manns Harbor. Pitt Co. : roadside, 2 
miles southwest of Greenville. Beaufort Co. : edge of swamp, 
2.5 miles northeast of Chocowinity; along RR., 1 mile west of 
Belhaven. Craven Co. : along RR., 9.3 miles southeast of Vance- 
boro ; James City ; North Harlowe. Lenoir Co. : oak-pine woods, 
0.4 mile south of Leflin's Crossroads; roadside, 1.5 miles south 
of Kinston. Jones Co. : Polocksville ; roadside, 2 miles north of 
Polloeksville. Carteret Co. : Roe ; Harkers Island ; Marshall- 
berg ; western edge of Morehead City ; Newport. Wilson Co. : 
Stantonsburg. Scotland Co. : just east of Laurinburg. Bladen 
Co. : roadside, Council ; Clarkton ; White Oak. Pender Co. : 
roadside, 0.5 mile south of Rocky Point ; Hempstead. Hoke Co. : 
Raeford. Robeson Co. : Fairmont ; roadside, 1.4 miles north- 
west of Allenton. Columbus Co. : under logs, 3.2 miles north- 
west of Ash; pine woods, 1.3 miles west of Evergreen. Bruns- 
wick Co. ; swamp, 6 miles northeast of Winnabow ; 1.5 miles east 
of Supply; roadside, 2.8 miles northwest of Ash. South Caro- 
lina : Florence Co. : Coward. Marion Co. : Marion. Horry Co. : 
pine woods, 2.5 miles east of Green Sea ; roadside, 3 miles south- 
west of Little River ; edge of swamp, 2.3 miles southeast of Gore 
Town. Georgetown Co. : Georgetown. Sumter Co. : low woods, 
Stateburg. Calhoun Co. : St. Matthews. Richland Co. : Co- 

V. cerinoideus is not strictly a species of the Coastal Plain. 
It is quite common in the Piedmont of South Carolina. 

There is considerable variation in this species. Specimens 
from the swamps are small, low spired, and with the callous 
within the lip greatly reduced or wanting. Those from the pine 
woods are larger, high spired, and with a heavy callous within 
the lip. The general run of specimens collected in the towns is 
usually intermediate between these two extremes. 

124 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Ventridens ligerus (Say) 

Virginia : Southampton Co. : Courtland. Nansemond Co. : 
near Magnolia. Elizabeth City Co. : Fox Hill. North Caro- 
lina : Jones Co. : roadside, 2 miles north of Pollocksville. 
Bladen Co. : Elizabethtown. 

Specimens from near Pollocksville are quite small with the 
shell pink instead of the usually yellow-green, 

Ventridens intertextus (Binney) 

South Carolina : Dillon Co. : Lake View. Berkeley Co. : flood- 
plain of Santee River, 5.5 miles northwest of St. Stephen. 
Richland Co. : Columbia. 

Anguispira fergusoni (Bland) 

Maryland : Somerset Co. : near Pocomoke River, opposite 
Pocomoke City. Virginia : Isle of Wight Co. : near river, oppo- 
site Franklin. Nansemond Co. : just east of Suffolk. Norfolk 
Co. : Norfolk. North Carolina : Camden Co. : bank of Pasquo- 
tank River, 3.3 miles southwest of Camden. Pasquotank Co. : 
Elizabeth City. Gates Co. : bank of Chowan River, opposite 
Winton. Perquimans Co. : Hertford ; Winf all. Martin Co. : 1 
mile northeast of Williamston ; Robersonville. Washington Co. : 
swamp, 1.3 miles east of Plymouth. Pitt Co. : dump, 1.5 miles 
north of Greenville. Beaufort Co. : Aurora. Pamlico Co. : 
Vandemere. Wayne Co. : Goldsboro. Craven Co. : New Bern. 
Lenoir Co. : Kinston. Carteret Co. : Atlantic. Onslow Co. : 
Swansboro. Cumberland Co. : Fayetteville. New Hanover Co. : 
Wilmington. Columbus Co. : north shore of Lake Waccamaw, 
near Lake Waccamaw Station. South Carolina : Horry Co. : 
1 mile east of Conway. Richland Co. : Columbia. 

At Columbia, South Carolina, this species was found associ- 
ated with A. crassa under the same log and the two species could 
be separated without difficulty. 

Anguispira alternata form angulata Pilsbry 

Maryland : Worcester Co. : Snow Hill. Virginia : Northamp- 
ton Co. : near Cape Charles. 

April, 1953] the nautilus 125 

Anguispira crassa Walker 

South Carolina : Sumter Co. : low woods, Stateburg. Rich- 
land Co. : Columbia. Calhoun Co. : Fort Motte ; along RR., 
Creston. Lexington Co. : lumber yard, Batesburg. 

Pallifera fosteri F. C. Baker 

Maryland : Somerset Co. : near Westover. Virginia : Sussex 
Co. : "Wakefield. Warwick Co. : 1.5 miles northeast of Morrison. 
Nansemond Co. : cane-brake, 1 mile west of Driver; near Chucka- 
tuck River, just north of Chuckatuck. Norfolk Co. : South Nor- 
folk. Princess Anne Co. : edge of swamp, 1 mile southeast of 
Thalia. North Carolina: Hyde Co.: 1.3 miles northeast of 
Engelhard. Beaufort Co. : edge of swamp, 2.5 miles northeast 
of Choeowinity. South Carolina : Richland Co. : Columbia. 
Georgia : Screven Co. : Flood-plain of Savannah River, 17 miles 
northeast of Sylvania. 

Quickella, new species? 

South Carolina : Colleton Co. : near Edisto River, 1 mile east 
of Jacksonboro. 

Three specimens were collected. The anatomy is similar to 
that of Quickella vagans (Pilsbry) but the shell looks more like 
that of a small Oxyloma salleana (Pfr.) rather than the Succinia 
campestris-like shell of Q. vagans. 

Gulella hicolor (Hutton) 

South Carolina : Charleston Co. : near Cooper River, north 
of Lee Street, Charleston. 

This species was determined by Dr. H. A. Pilsbry. 



In 1937 (Naut., 50: 143) Rehder reported the finding of two 
live specimens of Congeria leucopheata (Conrad) in the Hud- 

126 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

son River at Haverstraw, Rockland County, New York. As he 
noted, this record constituted "a notable extension of this 
brackish-water form, ' ' since its supposed northernmost limit was 
given as Chesapeake Bay by C. W. Johnson (List of Marine 
Moll, of Atlantic Coast, 1934, p. 29). 

On September 27, 1952, Mr. Herbert Athearn of Taunton, 
Massachusetts and the writer found this mussel in moderate 
numbers on submerged rocks on a beach just south of the New 
York Trap Rock Company at Haverstraw. The animals were 
attached by their byssus to the underside of these submerged 
rocks. On October 12, 1952, with Anthony D'Attilio and Edwin 
Carswell, we returned to this spot and, since the tide was lower, 
found larger specimens in similar situations but in somewhat 
deeper water. 

To find out whether C. leuco'pheata was limited only to this 
locality, we crossed the river by the Bear Mt. Bridge, and at 
Croton Point Park, almost directly opposite Haverstraw, found 
good-sized specimens of this shell in overwhelming numbers, 
fixed to the submerged portions of a diving float that had been 
hauled on shore for the winter. This habitat was shared by 
large numbers of the barnacle Balanus ehurneus. Some fisher- 
man who led us to live specimens attached to a recently retrieved 
anchor, told us that the mussel had appeared in such large num- 
bers in this area for the first time this year, though they had 
noticed it occasionally in earlier years. 

Two weeks later at Palisades Park, opposite the Yonkers Ferry 
and not far from the limits of New York City, we again collected 
some dead shells of Congeria on a small sand beach near the 
picnic grounds. The day was blustery and the waves high, so 
we did not look with too much care for live specimens. How- 
ever the state of preservation of the mussel shells was such 
as to indicate that they had not been brought down from far 
upstream but had probably lived not far from the spot where 
they had been collected. Of course, we are interested in de- 
termining the uppermost point on the river where Congeria 
appears as well as its nearest approach to the open sea. This 
we shall do when the weather again permits. Preliminary analy- 
ses made by Mr. Arthur Clarke of Boston of the water samples 

April, 1953] the nautilus 127 

collected in September and October give 8.2% sea water at 
Croton Point Park and 6.0% at Haverstraw. At the Palisades 
Park, the salt is readily perceptible to the taste. In 1929 (Naut., 
43: 34) Baily found in Chesapeake Bay a conglomeration of salt 
and fresh water organisms. Similarly at the two former lo- 
calities we found, besides the barnacles already mentioned, 
fragments of the blue crab (CalUnectes sapidus Ordway) and 
some beach fleas (Gammarus locusta Linne ?), in company with 
dwarfed Stagnicola palustris (Miiller) and some small gastro- 
pods that agree well with the recently discussed Littoridina 
tenuipes (Couper) (Naut., 66: 50 ff.). 

It is hardly likely that C. leucopheata has existed undetected 
in the Hudson River for so many years, defying the efforts of 
the most indefatigable and skillful collectors to find it. Much 
more plausible is the possibility that it was more or less recently 
introduced, possibly by accidental means. At any rate, we 
have here an interesting counterpart to the disappearance of 
such southerly forms as Littorma irrorata Say, Nassarius vihex 
Say and Noetia ponder osa (Say) from our shore in the north- 
east. In this case, we have a southern form advancing north- 
ward and adapting itself with great success. Hence the theory 
which sees evidence for ' ' a change in the climate for the colder ' ' 
(Johnsonia, 7: 7, 1943) in the dying out of L. irrorata at the 
northern edge of its range, may have to be revised. 

Johnson (I.e.) used the name Congeria leucopheata and gave 
Mytilopsis Conrad 1857 as a synonym of Congeria Partsch 1835. 
Thiele (Handb. d. Weicht., 862-3, 1935) listed Mytilopsis [type 
B. leucophaeata (sic) Conrad] as a section of Congeria which 
was a subgenus of Dreissena. However, since many of the 
Thiele subgenera have been accorded generic rank and the sec- 
tions are generally regarded as subgenera, the name as of now 
probably is Congeria {Mytilopsis) leucopheata Conrad. 

Specimens of the material we collected are in the collections 
of the above named gentlemen as well as in the United States 
National Museum, the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. We will be 
happy to send specimens to anyone asking for them as long as 
they last. 

128 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 



York Comity, Pennsylvania, is a territory not unfamiliar to 
the malacologist. At various times throughout the history of 
this part of the state, collectors have obtained mollusks and 
have reported on that fauna of this county. 

Probably the first mention on the fauna of York County was 
made by S. S. Haldeman. Haldeman, writing in Rupp's 
"History of Lancaster County" published in 1844, records 
"Limnea columella" from York County. 

In 1894, Dr. H. A. Pilsbry's "Critical List of Mollusks col- 
lected in the Potomac Valley" listed 32 species collected by 
Witmer Stone at York Furnace. 

Stanley Brooks in 1931 in "A List of the Land Snails of 
Pennsylvania with a Summary of their Distribution" includes 
a list of 27 terrestrial species from York County. Of these, 13 
species were previously reported by Dr. Pilsbry. 

Others who have mentioned the York County fauna are Arnold 
E. Ortmann (1919), Charles B. Wurtz (1940), and Gordon K. 
MacMillan (1948). 

A compilation of the species reported by these persons gives 
York County a record of 54 species of which 22 are aquatic and 
the remaining 32 are terrestrial. 

Armed with this known record, the senior author spent the 
summer of 1952 collecting mollusks throughout York County 
with the hope of adding new species to the county record and 
also to determine what change has taken place in the fauna of 
the county. Collecting was done chiefly in the vicinity of York, 
York Furnace, New Salem and Zion View. 

To the list of shells obtained by the senior author, the junior 
author has added 13 species and varieties. These specimens 
were taken from the material incorporated in the unpublished 
thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy degree by the junior author. 

Now that the results of the field trips have been evaluated, 
evidently York County supports a greater and more varied 

April, 1953] 



fauna than has previously been reported. A total of 35 species 
and subspecies not previously known in York County has been 
found. As has also been observed, industrial pollution of the 
county creeks and of the Susquehanna River is bringing about 
the extinction of the mussels and the freshwater gastropods. 

A revised list of species known from York County follows. 
Species new to the county fauna are indicated by an asterisk. 

Triodopsis tridentata (Say) 
T. tridentata juxtidens (Pilsbry) 
T. fallax (Say) 

T. fraudulenta vulgata Pilsbry* 
T. notata (Deshayes) 
T. albolabris (Say) 
T. albolabris dentatus (Tryon)* 
Mesodon thyroides (Say) 
Allogona profunda (Say)* 
Stenotrema hirsntum (Say) 
S. fraternum (Say) 
Haplotrema concavum (Say) 
Paravitrea multidentata (Binney)* 
Ventridens intertextus (Binney)* 
V. ligera (Say) 
V. siippressus (Say) 
V. suppressus virginicus (Vanatta)* 
Zonitoides arboreus (Say) 
Eawaiia minuscnla (Binney)* 
Retinella indentata (Say) 
R. indentata paucilirata (Morelet)* 
R. electrina (Gould) 
R. wheatleyi (Bland)* 
R. rhoadsi (Pilsbry)* 
Striatura milium (Morse) 
Omphalina cupreus (Rafinesque) 
Limax maximus (Linnaeus)* 
L. flavus (Linnaeus) 
Deroceras laeve (Mueller) 
D. reticulatum (Mueller)* 
Angvispira alternata (Say) 
A. alternata angulata Pilsbry & Van- 
Discus cronTcliitei (Newcomb) 
D. cronlchitei catsl-illensis (Pilsbry)* 
D. patulus (Deshayes)* 
Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) 
Philomycus carolinianus flexuolaris 

Pallifera dorsalis (Binney) 
Succinea avara Say* 
S. decampi gouldi (Pilsbry) 
S. oralis Say 
S. ovalis optima Pilsbry* 
Cionella hibrica (Mueller)* 
Pupoides albilabris (Ward) 
Gastrocopta armifera (Say) 

G. armifera clappi (Sterki)* 

G. pcntodon (Say)* 

G. corticaria (Say) 

Vertigo gouldi (Binney) 

r. tridentata Wolf 

F. ventricosa (Morse)* 

Columella edentula (Draparuaud) 

Strobilops aenea (Pilsbry) 

S. labyrinthica (Say) 

Vallonia puleliella (Mueller)* 

F. costata (Mueller)* 

F. excentrica Sterki 

Punctvm minutissimum (Lea)* 

Pseudosuccinea columella (Say) 

Stagnicola caperata (Say) 

Fossaria obrussa (Say)* 

F. modicella (Say)* 

F. parva (Lea)* 

Helisoma anceps (Menke) 

Helisoma trivolvis (Say) 

Gyraulus parvus (Say) 

Planorbula jenTcsii (H. F. Carpen- 

Physa heterostropha (Say) 

Ferrissia rividaris (Say)* 

Campeloma decisum (Say) 

Valvata tricarinata (Say) 

F. bicarinata (Say) 

Lioplax subcarinata (Say) 

Amnicola limosa ^Say) 

Pomatiopsis lapidaria (Say)* 

Goniobasis virginica (Gmelin) 

Anculosa carinata (Brug) 

Elliptio complanatus (Dillwyn) 

Anodonta cataracta (Say) 

Alasmidonta nndulata (Say) 

A. variocosa (Lamarck) 

Strophitus rugosus (Swainson) 

Lampsilis cariosa (Say) 

L. radiata (Gmelin) 

Sphaerivm sulcatum (Lamarck)* 

S. striatinum (Lamarck)* 

S. (Musculium) transversum (Say)* 

S. (Musculium) partumi ium (Say) 

S. (Musculium) truncatum (Lins- 

Pisidium casertanum (Poll)* 

130 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 


University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

Much of our knowledge of Indian culture has been obtained 
through the examination of ancient village sites, mounds, and 
other structures which were once associated with Indians of 
past ages. By examining various items such as pottery, cooking 
utensils of various types, weapons, and the inedible remains of 
different kinds of food, the ancient cultures of certain Indian 
groups have been ascertained. Anthropologists have both care- 
fully studied and written about many sites once ococupied by 
the American Indian. States appearing commonly in the vast 
accumulation of literature on this subject are Maine, New York, 
Indiana, Illinois, Arizona, Tennessee, and several others. 

Illinois ranks high in the preceding list. The main reason 
for this fact is that this state was arranged excellently, both 
geographically and geologically, for the semipermanent residence 
of many Indians. The flat or gently rolling, highly fertile 
topography was well suited for agriculture. Many artifacts 
have been found which were used for cultivating plants. Then, 
too, the numerous w^aterways offered excellent opportunity for 
the navigation of canoes both within Illinois and to distant 
areas. The Ohio River on the south was navigable for hundreds 
of miles to the east, while the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers 
carried both Indians and goods to the north, south and west. 

Although relics of Indian origin have been found in most 
of the counties of Illinois, certain areas have been outstanding 
in their contributions from these very interesting people. Usu- 
ally the most important areas have been typified by the presence 
of mounds of varying shapes, which were mainly used as burial 
sites. Some of the more important mounds are located near the 
confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, on the lower 
reaches of Cahokia Creek near East St. Louis, near Peoria, 
and near Havana. However, former village sites have been 
excavated in several areas which have contained many utensils 
and farming implements, with many items of animal origin 

April, 1953] the nautilus 131 

having been discovered in the various kitchen middens and 
refuse heaps. It is interesting to note that all of the larger 
sites are located near the banks of a stream of considerable size. 
On several occasions, suggestions concerning the former dis- 
tribution of animals have been obtained from the study of bones 
and other indestructible items of animal origin which were 
either eaten by, or were closely associated with the Indians of 
various eras. The analysis of animal remains from Illinois sites 
has been conducted chiefly by F. C. Baker, who was formerly 
curator of the University of Illinois Museum of Natural History. 
In his outstanding papers on this subject (1930, 1931), he has 
presented a formidable list of fish, birds, mammals and mollusks 
from various sites in Illinois. He, unlike other authors on the 
subject, made an attempt to classify the mollusks instead of 
merely listing them as being present. His lists are mainly 
qualitative in that they are an inventory of the forms present, 
without the enumeration of individuals represented by the vari- 
ous species. He found that the food supply of these Indians 
was significantly augmented by fresh-water mussels. During 
the excavation of a mound near Havana, Baker observed one 
kitchen midden of clam shells of such size that its origin was 
confused as the pile resembled a Pleistocene formation many of 
which were also found in that area. He also stated that several 
species of aquatic snails were probably used as food while land 
snails seemed to be rare in kitchen middens. This is an in- 
teresting observation because the author of this paper has ob- 
tained large quantities of well preserved land snails which have 
been taken from village sites recently excavated on the Illinois 
River. However, he is of the opinion that the land snails 
crawled onto the exposed mass of a kitchen midden composed 
mostly of clam shells, found the situation to their liking mainly 
due to the calcium content of the valves and remained there. 
Large numbers of them completed their life cycle and thus a 
large uppermost layer of these land snails were gathered here 
during the process of excavation. There is an excellent possi- 
bility that many terrestrial snails may have found the pile of 
discarded valves while the village was still being occupied by 
Indians. However, the author's opinion does not coincide with 
that of the noted anthropologist. Professor John McGregor of 



[Vol. 66 (4) 

the University of Illinois, who was in charge of this investiga- 
tion. He feels that they were gathered and eaten by the 
Indians. A student of conchology will profit by reading his 
treatise on this subject as soon as it is published. 


Large Hill 


Former River Bed 




Fig. la. Diagram of McGee's Creek adjacent to a former village site 
occupied by Illinoian Indians in 500 B.C. 

Fig. lb. Cross-section of the basin of McGee's Creek showing its former 
river bed. 

Recently, the author has been the fortunate recipient of a 
large collection of fresh-water and snail shells which had been 
removed from kitchen middens. These were presented by Pro- 
fessor McGregor who had uncovered them at several sites along 
the lower Illinois River, and other sites near Batchtown and 
Hamburg, Illinois, adjacent to the Mississippi River. 

April, 1953] the nautilus 133 

Of the several sites which were included, one seemed of un- 
usual interest. This site, formerly a small village, included a 
large variety of unionid valves whose environmental demands 
did not seem to fit the aquatic situation as it exists at the present 
time. It is located on McGee's Creek, a small tributary of the 
Illinois River, entering that stream a few miles below and op- 
posite Meredosia which is located in Morgan County. The creek 
originates near Quincy, Illinois, flows southeastward through a 
series of hills and then breaks through the bluffs of the Illinois 
River which are low at this point. It then proceeds several 
miles along the flood plain of the large river before entering it. 
The site is located on the Robert Poole farm about two miles 
before the stream enters the flood plain. A dwelling of con- 
siderable size was discovered about forty feet from the bank of 
the creek (fig. la). Also nearby, the remains of several fires 
which had been used for cooking over a long period of time 
were unearthed. Dr. McGregor, by means of carbon ^* determi- 
nation, has dated the village's existence as being about 500 B.C. 
Many pieces of pottery, beads, artifacts of various nature, and 
the remains of many animals which had been used as food were 
found around the buildings and in the trash which had accumu- 
lated throughout the small village. 

At present, the creek is about twenty feet wide at this point 
and flows in a channel with almost perpendicular banks which 
are about fifteen feet in height. The east bank, adjacent to the 
dwelling, has been subjected to scouring action brought about 
by many periods of flood over an indefinite span of time to the 
extent that perhaps, in time, the entire remains of the perma- 
nent dwelling may be lost. The author has visited the site in 
early spring when the waters of the creek had left the present 
stream bed and were flowing through the nearby forest. How- 
ever, the village site which is fortunately on higher ground was 
several feet above water. 

One of the first indications that a village might have existed 
at this location was the plowing up of several unionid valves by 
Mr. Poole. Later, Dr. McGregor investigated the spot where 
they were found. He immediately discovered that a large ac- 
cumulation of valves had been discarded by the Indians so that 
a kitchen midden of large size had been formed which extended 

134 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

into the earth for a distance of several feet. Although the com- 
pact mass of mussel valves was quite free from soil, dispersed 
among them were individual beads, broken artifacts, and other 
items which were no longer of value to the Indians. No shells 
of aquatic snails were found, which may imply that they were 
not eaten, at least by these Indians. As most of the mussel 
valves exhibited various stages of disintegration, there is a 

Fig. 2. Valve of Megalonaias gigantea which was used as a hoe. The 
tip of the hoe (posterior end) was broken. 

chance that the relatively frail shells of aquatic snails might 
have been decomposed. Many valves were represented only by 
the umbonal area or by some other fragment of the original 
shell. In all, the periostraeum had been lost and upon the 
slightest exertion of pressure the outer layers of nacre falls 
apart. Many terrestrial snails were found. Although they 
were more concentrated at the top of the kitchen midden, there 
were shells present at all levels. Most of them are excellently 
preserved. On many, the color-patterns are still clearly in evi- 

April, 1953] the nautilus 135 

dence and the lips are unbroken. One artifact, a hoe (fig. 2), 
was made by boring a hole through the disc of a valve and then 
chipping off a portion of the anterior end so that it would fit 
the right hand of the user. The index finger would be inserted 
in the hole. 

Although the unionid valves were in various stages of dis- 
integration, most of them could be identified with surpris- 
ing ease. There are several structures on a valve which are 
constant, or almost so, for any given species of mussel. Usually, 
when one of these was obliterated, those which remained were 
sufficient for accurate identification. Often small fragments 
were identifiable by the presence of a single key characteristic. 

In the following inventory of the fresh-water mussels ob- 
tained at the site, the numbers in parentheses represent speci- 
mens which were measurable ; when two numbers are given, the 
first refers to length and the second to height. The numbers 
collected (and measured) are followed by mean lengths and 
heights, unless otherwise indicated. 

Actinonaias carinata. 64 (39) , 7.9 X 4.7 cm. Uniformly small ; 
posterior tips usually lost. 

Actinonams ellipsiformis. 17 (10) , 4.9 X 2.9 cm. Very common 
in headwaters; occasionally in small rivers. 

AmMema costata. 37 (15, 21), 6.6 X 4.9 cm. Small, as is 
typical in small rivers. 

AmMema peruviana. 28 (14, 18), 6.8 X 4.8 cm. Compara- 
tively small. 

Amhlema rariplicata. 5 (4, 5), 7.5 X 5.4 cm. Comparatively 

Elliptio crassidens. 9 (2, 3), 9.6 X 5.9 cm. No record of 
presence in Illinois during historical times. 

Elliptio dilatatus. 40 (39), length 7.1 cm. Species is typical 
of small rivers (form delicatus). 

Fusconaia ehenus. 9 (9), 5.2 X 5.8 cm. Much smaller than 
those found in large rivers. 

Fusconaia flava. 12 (10), 4.2x3.2 cm. Species and size 
typical of small rivers. 

Lampsilis anodontoides. 1 (1), height 5.2 cm. Usually found 
in bottom composed of coarse sand. 

Lampsilis siliquoidea. 50 (42), 7.3 X 4.0 cm. Small; both lake 
and river forms present. 

Lampsilis ventricosa. 36 (26), 8.9 X 6.0 cm. Small, as is 
found in small rivers; valves rounded. 

136 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Lasmigo7ia costata. 5. Only umbonal areas found; lives in 
many environments. 

Ligumia recta. 11 (3), 9.8 X 4.1 cm. Usually lives in gravel 
or sand in clear water. 

Megalonaias gigantea. 3. Two were artifacts; species lives 
only in large rivers. 

Micromya iris. 3 (3), 4.6 X 2.5 cm. Very common in head- 
waters ; occasionally in small rivers. 

Pleurohema coccineum. 26 (19), 5.2 X 3.8 em. Small, as is 
typical of small rivers ; prefers gravel bottom. 

Pleurohema pyramidatum. 3 (2), 5.6 X 6.6 cm. Occurs in 
large rivers or nearby in tributaries. 

Quadrula pustidosa. 5 (5), 4.3 X 4.2 cm. Small, as in small 
rivers ; prefers gravel bottom. 

Strophitus rugosus. 1. Umbo only; sole representative of 
thin shelled forms. 

Tritogonia verrucosa. 2 (2), 9.9 X 5.4 cm. Lives in large and 
small rivers; prefers gravel bottom. 

As will be observed, many of the mussels listed are typical 
residents of small or medium-sized rivers. Others can live in 
either large or small rivers, but if they occupy the latter their 
size becomes diminished. Often, other features of shells may 
become altered during their transmission from larger rivers to 
smaller streams (Ortmann, van der Schalie). There is no defi- 
nite explanation for this phenomenon. Certain taxonomists have 
gone to the extent of establishing subspecies for several of those 
forms which occur in both large and small rivers. 

Two forms which are typical of headwaters are represented 
in the list. Actinonaias ellipsiformis and Micromya iris have 
been collected in large numbers from the extreme headwaters of 
several rivers in Illinois. However, they may be found occa- 
sionally farther down these streams where small-river conditions 
prevail. There is a definite tendency for an increase in size 
in the latter environment. A small river may arbitrarily be de- 
scribed as being approximately 30 feet wide with a maximum 
depth of three or four feet during periods of normal water 

Those forms in the list which are most typical of small rivers 
are Amhlema costata, Elliptio dilatatus, Fusconaia flava and 
Pleurohema coccineum. In all these forms, certain variations in 
the shell are noticeable. The advisability of creating subspecies 

April, 1953] the nautilus 137 

where these slight differences occur within a species is problem- 
atic. Baker (1928) would identify some of the individuals listed 
here as E. dilatatus delicatus. 

The forms Actinonaias carinata, Amhlema peruviana, Am- 
hlema rariplicata, Fusconaia ehenus, Lanipsilis ventricosa and 
Pleurohema pyramidatiim are usually described as being found 
in large rivers. However, these species, or so-called subspecies 
of them, may be found in a small-river environment, often in 
large numbers. When this situation occurs, the individuals be- 
come reduced in size and the ratios between length, height and 
width of shell may change. The latter phenomenon has been 
emphasized by Ortmann. Probably Baker (1928) would take 
strong exception to the possibility that these forms are found in 
a small river. 

Decrease in size which accompanies the entrance of most 
large-river species into a small-river environment is well illus- 
trated by F. ehenus. The means for length and height of the 
nine specimens which were found at the site were 5.2 and 5.8 
centimeters respectively. The means for the same measure- 
ments of 134 specimens which were taken from a site near 
Batchtown, Illinois, adjacent to the Mississippi River were 5.8 
and 7.7 centimeters respectively. The valves of L. ventricosa 
were observed to be uniformly small and delicate when compared 
with those from large rivers and were unusual in that they pre- 
sented few differences in general shape which is highly variable 
in this species. 

Indications show that the valves of Megalonaias gigantea were 
carried to the site from either the Illinois or Mississippi Rivers. 
As the hoes of the primitive Indians, who formerly occupied the 
village, were usually made from this species, the three valves 
which were found could have been secured at any point on these 
rivers where they existed. As today, this species then probably 
occupied only the largest rivers. 

The other species mentioned in the chart occupy either large 
or small rivers. As is interesting to note, Elliptio crassidens 
has not been found in Illinois during the present era. However, 
Baker (1928) states that it has been found in several Pleistocene 
deposits in northern Illinois. P. pyramidatum is said by Baker 

138 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

(1928) to occupy large rivers but it will enter the smaller 
tributary streams nearby them. He lists the unionid as P. 
coccineum solida but the author feels that Ortmann and Walk- 
er 's name (1922) is more accurate. 

The umbonal area of a single valve of Strophitus rugosus 
represented the only thin-shelled form which was found in the 
kitchen midden. The reason for the scarcity of thin-shelled 
unionids is unknown. Although all the valves were carefully 
removed from their original positions, there is a chance that 
the valves of the more fragile forms had already disintegrated. 
Another assumption might be that the Indians had learned to 
favor certain species over others as food. And, of course, the 
thinner-shelled mussels may not have existed near the site. 
However, it seems impossible that such forms as Anodonta 
grandis and Anodontoides ferussacianus were not present. They 
invariably exist in varying numbers in a community of fresh- 
water mussels when the forms mentioned here are included in 
the group. Also, one is almost sure to find other thick-shelled 
mussels in this community, especially Alasmidonta marginata 
and Lasmigona complanata. These forms were lacking from the 
collection. Little debris which might have originated from the 
deterioration of unionid valves was present in the kitchen mid- 
den. From the foregoing facts, it is logical to assume that for 
reasons unknown at present the Indians selected some forms for 
their diet and rejected others. 

The creek as it exists today does not afford favorable living 
conditions for most of the mussels which are included in the in- 
ventory. As has been stated before, it flows between two rela- 
tively high banks over a barren clay bottom. There are no 
evidences of those aquatic plants or other forms of aquatic life 
which are usually associated with a small river. The water 
itself is somewhat turbid and moves rapidly, other than in late 
summer when the stream becomes only a series of shallow 
pools. An inventory of the present day unionid fauna reveals 
that there are two mussels in evidence which typically occupy 
the headwaters of rivers. Alasmidonta calceolus and Actinonaias 
ellipsiformis were found sparingly in the vicinity of the site. 

(Concluded in next number) 

April, 1953] the nautilus 139 





Our beloved Mrs. Robertson (Genie to most of us) died Febru- 
ary 6, 1953. Her untimely death is a great loss to every member 
of the American Malacologieal Union, whether they knew her 
or not, as her long and devoted services as Secretary from the 
date of its organization April 30, 1931, until 1951 can never be 
matched. There was only one Genie Robertson. 

During Mr. Robertson's long illness she was unable to attend 
the A.M.U. Meetings with the exception of the one held in Wash- 
ington in 1946. As Mr. Robertson's death occurred in July, 
1951, just a few weeks before the Buffalo meeting, it was quite 
an emotional effort for her to greet old A.M.U. friends at that 
time. However she was very happy to have the meeting here. 
As the A.M.U. was very dear to her heart, she valiantly proceeded 
to supervise the preparations for that meeting, which was the 
last one she attended. As is pleasant to recall, the host in 1951 
was the Museum where she had worked faithfully and happily 
for many years. 

Mrs. Robertson was a member of an old South Buffalo family. 
From the age of three until her death she had lived at 136 
Buffum Street. She is survived by two sons, Clarence P. Rob- 
ertson and Ralph A. Robertson, both of Buffalo ; tAvo daughters, 
Mrs. Walter McCausland of Buffalo and Mrs. J. Gordon Petrie 
of Grand Junction, Colorado. 

Mrs. Robertson gave freely of her time to those who consulted 
her on scientific problems. She carried on a wide correspondence 
with many people whom she had never met and those who have 
had this privilege must have derived much pleasure and benefit 
from their contact with her. 

She served as Secretary of the Buffalo Naturalists Field Club ; 
Secretary of the Microscopical Section of the Buffalo Society of 

140 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

Natural Sciences from June 1920 when this group was organized, 
until October, 1947 ; Secretary of the Conchological Section from 
1918 to 1936, and as President of that Section until her death. 
She was Curator of Conchology and later Associate in Mala- 
cology; Curator of Biology; Science Editor and Registrar as 
well as Librarian of the Museum's collection of microscopical 

Mrs. Robertson was co-author with the late Clifford L. Blakes- 
lee of "The Mollusca of the Niagara Frontier Region," the 
Bulletin of the Society of Natural Sciences, Volume 19, Number 
3, Buffalo, 1948. 

In looking through some of her files, her daughter, Mrs. Mc- 
Causland, and I have found papers on widely diversified sub- 
jects, which no doubt were written for the numerous groups of 
which she was a member. A few of the papers are : ' ' Conchology 
in Buffalo"; "Some Minute Mollusks of the Niagara Frontier"; 
"What About Slugs"; "Molluscan Jaws"; and many more on 
conchology; "What I found on a Sycamore Tree"; "Furs and 
Feathers"; "Plant Hairs"; "Opals with the Microscope," and 
the last article she wrote was ' ' Once an Indian Village, ' ' a brief 
sketch of the historical background of the surroundings which so 
long had been familiar to her. 

In checking records at the Museum, I find that for "Hobbies" 
(the magazine of the B.S.N.S.) she had written approximately 
sixty-five articles. She retired from the Museum in 1942, and 
until her death was Research Associate in Malacology. 

Fossil shells were among some of Mrs. Robertson's childhood 
playthings as their house was built on a limestone ledge and the 
rocks blasted out in making the excavation for the cellar were 
rich in fossils. The only mollusk named for her is a cephalopod, 
Tylorthoceras rohertsonae Flower, which in 1912 she found 
practically on her own back doorstep. This fossil shell is in the 
Buffalo Museum, as is also the entire Robertson shell collection. 

Fond memories of Genie Robertson will remain forever with 
those who knew her well. — Margaret M. Teare. 

This versatile woman left not one empty space but several. A 
devoted mother, she is sadly missed by her bereft family. Her 
passing is felt keenly by all the church of which she was a life- 

April, 1953] the nautilus 141 

long member. Scientifically, literally hundreds of persons came 
to love this friendl}' woman, who gave patient and detailed at- 
tention to their requests for information or advice. An old 
friend once said : ' ' Genie had a head start, for she was born with 
dimples, a tranquil disposition, and an inquiring mind. ' ' 

In 1903, Imogene Christobel Strickler married Harold Ralph 
Robertson. Together they started and built a magnificent col- 
lection of shells, another of minerals. 

In later years, Mrs. Robertson became an authority on the 
culture of the Indians of western New York, and her last pub- 
lished work was a history of the old burying ground, now a city 
park, across from her home. The second installment appeared 
in the same number of a neighborhood newspaper which an- 
nounced her death. 

As secretary of the A. M. U., Imogene carved for herself a 
lasting niche in the hearts of her fellows, for she was unfailing 
in what she considered the greatest of her duties, that of afford- 
ing every encouragement to any person who sought her aid. 
She saw the Union double in size, and no small factor in that 
growth was the patient effort, which did not feel that her duties 
stopped with the mailing of announcements and form letters. 

She made no claim to being other than an amateur, never 
named a species, and preferred rather to serve science by ad- 
ministering to the needs of other scientists. Appreciation of 
this attitude is expressed in a letter, written by one who often 
benefited from her kindness : * ' She was an inspiration to many 
collectors, amateur and professional. Perhaps our loss can be 
tempered with the thought that when some of us finally take 
passage across the River Styx, we shall forever be condemned 
to sit and identify the species we have described, while Mrs. 
Robertson will be free to wander over sunnj' Eh^sian meadows 
and gather in quantity the rarest and most beautiful of mollusks. 
May I join her friends and fellow club members in wishing her 
happy hunting." 

And so say we all. Good shelling, Imogene ! — Margaret C. 

1 A few excerpts from a fine biography. Mrs. Teskey also furnished the 
photograph for the frontispiece of this number. — H. B. B. 

142 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 


The Eighth Annual Shell Show of the St. Petersburg, 
Florida, Shell Club was held in the Rod and Gun Club house on 
Lake Maggiore, February 19 to 26. The Smithsonian Award 
for the best collection, a handsome framed, lithographic plate 
of shells in color, was given to Mr. and Mrs. Myron P. Van Woert. 
Their exhibit comprised a collection of Florida sea shells, and 
an extensive general collection arranged to show classification 
of Mollusca down to genera. The numerous species were all 
named, and genotypes present were indicated. 

So many of the exhibits were of high merit that, short of 
describing them all, selection of any for special mention would 
be difficult. They comprised local and Florida collections, deep 
water shells of the Gulf, exhibits of single families, such Halio- 
tidae, Volutidae, Muricidae and poison Conus, also shells 
adapted to decorative purposes, engraved shells, cameos, and 
many others. Mention may also be made that an Award of 
Merit was given to a boy of ten, Berry J. Weekesser, for the 
best collection by juniors under 14 years of age. The salt water 
aquarium of James Kelley, Jr., also received an Award. — 
H. A. P. 

Another specimen of Fastigiella carinata Reeve. — You 
may be interested to know that we have a specimen of this rare 
shell, almost identical with that collected by Mr. Ostheimer, 
which we have seen. Ours was taken last July at Powell 's Point, 
Eleuthera, Bahamas. It is a crab shell, 39 mm. long, and was 
found in about four feet depth at low tide. — George F. Kline 
(in letter to Ed.). 

Note on Mesodon andrewsae normalis. — In Pilsbry's Land 
Mollusca of N. A., vol. 1, p. 720, the locality "North Carolina: 
Ben Creek Experimental Forest, Walnut Cove, Stokes Co. 
(A. P. Jacot) " for Mesodon andrewsae normalis (Pils.) is 
cited. This record seemed questionable to me and I set out to 
check it. I made numerous inquiries in Stokes Co., N. C, but 
could not find anyone who knew of any experimental forest in 
that area. On my last visit to Philadelphia, I examined the 
specimen. Although it is dead and somewhat deformed, it was 
undoubtedly M. a. 7iormalis. The label, however, gave the lo- 

April, 1953] the nautilus 143 

cality as "Bent Creek" rather than Ben Creek. On the U. S. 
G. S. topographic map of the Dunmore Mtn. N. C. quadrangle, 
in Buncombe Co., was an area marked "Bent Creek Experi- 
mental Forest." I believe this to be the true locality for this 
specimen, and that in some way the data on the label became 
mixed. — Leslie Hubricht. 


Marine Mollusca of the eastern coast of North America : 
THEIR NAMES AND MEANINGS. By Henry Poirier. 167 pp., 
mimeographed. 1952. Roger Bretet, $5.25. — This checklist, 
with the derivation or meanings of the names of taxonomic 
groups from classes to subspecies, contains the species in John- 
son's "List of marine Mollusca of the Atlantic Coast" plus 
many described since, making 2915 in all. It shows careful 
study and should be very useful to collectors and students. A 
few of the derivations are translated too literally ; for examples, 
Rissoella and Rissoina were founded on Rissoa, and only in- 
directly "Named for Risso," and Phenacolepas (Phenacolepa- 
didae) probably connoted a false (not s.s.) lepas rather than 
"a deceptive limpet." — H. B. B. 

Methods and principles of systematic zoology. By Ernst 
Mayr, E. Gorton Linsley and Robert L. Usinger. 328 pp. 1953. 
McGraw-Hill, $6.00. — This text and reference book is divided 
into 3 parts: "Categories" and concepts (59 pp.), with chapters 
on taxonomy, the species and its subdivisions, and higher groups 
in classification; Procedure (115 pp.), with 6 chapters on meth- 
ods, and Nomenclature (84 pp.), with 8 chapters which include 
discussions of the international rules and proposals for the fu- 
ture. The work also includes a bibliography (15 pp.), a glossary 
of technical terms (16 pp.) and an index. The book should be 
very useful, at least as a focus for discussion. Naturally it 
mainly emphasizes the ornithologic and entomologic viewpoints, 
with their accentuation of the species. — H. B. B. 

Einfuhrung in die Biotaxonomie. By F. A. Schilder. 
1952. 162 pp. Gustav Fischer, 13.50 DM.— This introduction 

144 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 66 (4) 

to bio-taxonomy, which in the author's semantics means the 
" Formenkreis " ideology, after a synopsis of general taxonomy 
(15 pp.), definitions of distribution (6 pp.), discussions of the 
"Formenkreis" or superspecies (19 pp.) and generalizations on 
morphologic parallelism (4 pp.), illustrates the ideas with ex- 
amples from the literature, which understandingly are not ar- 
ranged in the same categories, since taxonomic groups seldom 
agree with any one generality. The first and many subsequent 
examples are Cypraeidae, which are claimed to represent the 
best research on marine mollusks. The 123 text figures, founded 
on these examples, mainly superimpose diagrams on rather 
vague outline maps ; like most of Dr. Schilder 's contrivances, 
they are highly ingenuous but often somewhat puzzling. This 
little book is a very useful concentration of many widely dis- 
persed (although mainly European) taxonomic publications. 
— H. B. B. 


The classes Loricata and Pelecypoda. By Henry Dodge. 1953. 
Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 100, art. 1, 263 pp. $4.00. 
— This is an exhaustive series of studies on the Linnean genera 
and species. Each identifiable species is traced to its modern 
systematic position, and a characteristic figure is cited. Without 
too much emphasis on the Linnean collection, studied by Han- 
ley, or on the figures cited by Linne in his synonymies, Dodge 
makes a careful attempt to identify each species in its original 
description, which is quoted. The type of each of Linne 's 
genera and of each subsequent group, of which any of his 
species has become the type, is discussed. Besides providing 
very interesting reading from its historic aspects, this work will 
be extremely useful to all students of these difficult problems of 
nomenclature. — H. B. B. 

Vol. 66 JULY, 1952 No. 1 




EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS | ManHj BioIogical LaboTatorv 

Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of MoIlt^caP ^ 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philaflelphia % -'- -^ Jt< .A. IR, '^T 

H. Burrington Baker, Professor of Eoologj^i j f i .^ 1Qh9 
University of Pennsylvania^ '-^'^'u-l I^JZ. 



Notes on Ncsta (Laevinesta) atlantica, etc. By Henry A. 

Pilshry and Thomas L. McGinty 1 

Ciliary feeding in Pomacea paludosa (Say). By Bert M. 

Johnson 3 

Carychium exiguum Say of Lower Michigan, Morphology, 

Ecology, etc. By PL\rold W. Harry 5 

The Duxbury Bay 1950 set of Mya arenaria L. By Henry 

D. Russell 7 

The Land Shells of Pittsylvania County, Virginia. By Leslie 

Huhricht 10 

Some land shells from Japan and Siberia. By Walter J. 

Eyerdam 13 

The shells of Pj-ramid Lake, Nevada, By Morris K. Jacob- 
son 15 

A new subspecies of Pecten gihhus (L). By Gilbert Gran 17 
Observations on the genus Schizothaerus By Emery F. 

Swan and John R. Finucane 19 

European snails sold as fish bait. By Wm. Marcus Ingram 2(3 

Harold John Finlay. Bv //. A. Rehder 30 

William F. Clapp. By W. J. Clench 31 

Notes and News 31 

Publications Received 34 

$2.50 per year ($2.65 to Foreign Countries) 65 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Bv-finess Manafjer 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered aR Second-Class matter, October 29, 1932. at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia, Pa., under the Act of March 3. 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of Mollusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should he typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Reprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies ^ $4,30 $6.86 $11.16 

100 copies 5.15 8.16 13.73 

Additional 100s 1.72 2.58 5.15 

Plates (pasted in): $3.43 for 50; additional plates 2.58 each 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacologieal Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Imogene C. Robertson, Financial Secretary, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Buffalo, N. Y, 


Wanted : Back Volumes and Numbers of The Nautilus. Esi^ecially, vol. 3 ; 
vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vols. 17 to 24; vol. 25, no. 
5; vols. 26, 27; vol. 52; vol. 53, nos. 2, 3; vols. 54 to 58; vol. 59, no. 
1 ; vol. 60, no. 2. Some nos. of volumes listed are in stock, but others 
are desired. Address Horace B. Baker, Univ. Penna. Zoo. Lab., 
Philadelphia 4. 

Wanted: Preserved or living viviparid snails, in exchange for local MoUusca. 

Glenn R. Webb, Ohio (P.O.), Illinois. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Ligiiiis) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaea 
nemoralis, Ofala species, and Helix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 


Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. New long list 

ready. Ask for it, and send yours. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago 5, Illinois. 

Wanted: Recent and Tertiary Mollusca. Offered: Similar material from 
various countries. Apply with list. 

J. L. Staed, 123 rue Clovis, Eheims, Marne, France. 

Wanted: Marine shells, in exchange for identified marines, land and fresh 
water mollusks. 

Mrs. H. B. Baker, 11 Chelten Road, Havertown, Pa. 

For Exchange: Bookbinding and book repair done — The Nautilus, 
JoHNSONiA, etc. — for duplicate shells or molluscan literature. 

Dr. Walter H. Jacobs, 124 West 93rd Street, New York 25, N. Y. 

Wanted: Pectens (world-wide). Exchange or purchase. Can offer good 
marine specimens, many genera, with data. 

Gilbert Grau, 2457 Claremont Ave., Hollywood 27, Calif. 

For Exchange : Sixty species of Cypraca, including rare local varieties, from 
Red Sea and Indian Ocean. 

Darrell Bates, Secretariat, Hargeisa, Somaliland Protectorate. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

Specimen Shells and books or papers relating to them bought, sold and 

John Q. Burch, 1584 West Vernon Ave., Los Angeles 37, Calif. 

Translations of German, French and Spanish shell literature done in ex- 
change for shells, shell literature, duplicates or money. 

Morris K. Jacobson, 455 B. 139 St., Rockaway Beach, New York. 



EAST COAST MARINE SHELLS (Fourth revised edition) . . . 6.00 




All post-paid in U. S. A. 

Address autlior: 

Box 65, Windermere, Florida 


Volumes 35-60 
Compiled by Aurele La Rocque 

The index to The Nautilus for volumes 35 through 60 is now available 
for distribution. Copies may be procured from the University of 
Michigan Press, 311 Maynard Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The book 
is made up in the same format as the First Index, is cloth bound and 
divided into two sections, an author index and an index to genera and 

Pages: 322, frontispiece Price: $5.00 

Vol. 66 OCTOBER, 1952 No. 2 





Henrt a. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of Mollusca, 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelpiia iJ n- i : '^7 , , , 

XT T, -Q T. / . '^-.ine Biological Laboratory 

H. BuRRiNGTON Baker, Professor of Oology, ._ _, ° -o -=?- 

University of Pennsylvania 

1. 1 13 i^ jfv JR -y 

DEC 2- i9o2 



New Gastropods from the Blanco formation. * "Dj> li. ' Biff ' Oi f f 

Leonard 37 

Rafinesque's Slugs. By Leslie Hubricht 4G 

A bristled Monadenia from California. By Robert R. 

Talmadge 47 

Littoridina tenuipes (Couper). By //. A. Pilshry 50 

Checklist of New Jersey Land Snails. By Robert C. Alex- 
ander 54 

The Publication Dates of Kobelt 's ' ' Illustriertes Conchylien- 

buch. " By Harald A. Rehder 59 

A preliminary list of the Mollusca of Hanover County, 

Virginia. By John Bayard Burch GO 

A study of Lamarck's types of Unionidae and Mutelidae. 

By Richard I. Johnson 03 

Eighteenth Annual Meeting A.M.U. By Margaret C. Teskey 07 

Notes and News 09 

Publications Received 72 

.50 per year ($2.65 to Foreign Countries) 65 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manager 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class matter, October 29, 1932, at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia. Pa., under the Act of March 3. 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of Mollusks, edited aud pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript sJiould he typewritten and douhle spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Reprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies $4.30 $6.86 $11.16 

100 copies 5.15 8.16 13.73 

Additional 100s 1.72 2.58 5.15 

Plates (pasted in): $3.43 for 50; additional plates 2.58 each 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Margaret C. Teskey, Financial Secretary, 144 Harlem Avenue, Buffalo 
22, N. Y. 


Wanted: Back Volumes and Numbers of The Nautilus. Especially, vol. 3; 
vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 6, no. 3; vol. 9, no, 1; vols. 17 to 24; vol. 25, no. 
5; vols. 26, 27; vol. 52; vol. 53, nos. 2, 3; vols. 54 to 58; vol. 59, no. 
1 ; vol. 60, no. 2. Some nos. of volumes listed are in stock, but others 
are desired. Address Horace B. Baker, Univ. Penna. Zoo. Lab., 
Philadelphia 4. 

Wanteb: Preserved or living viviparid snails, in exchange for local Mollusra. 

Glenn R. Webb, Ohio (P.O.), Illinois. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Li.pinis) including 
three of the rare L. soUdus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaea 
vemnralis, Otala species, and Helix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 


Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. New long list 
ready. Ask for it, and send yours. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago 5, Illinois. 

Wanted: Kecent and Tertiary MoUusca. Offered: Similar material from 
various countries. Apply with list. 

J. L. Staed, 123 rue Clovis, Rheims, Marne, France. 

Wanted: Marine shells, in exchange for identified marines, land and fresh 
water mollusks. 

Mrs. H. B. Baker, 11 Chelten Road, Havertown, Pa, 

For Exchange: Bookbinding and book repair done — The Nautilus, 
JoHNSONiA, etc. — for duplicate shells or molluscan literature. 

Dr. Walter H. Jacobs, 124 West 93rd Street, New York 25, N. Y. 

Wanted: Pectens (world-wide). Exchange or purchase. Can offer good 
marine specimens, many genera, with data. 

Gilbert Grau, 2457 Claremont Ave., Hollywood 27, Calif. 

For Exchange : Sixty species of Cypraca, including rare local varieties, from 
Red Sea and Indian Ocean. 

Darrell Bates, Secretariat, Hargeisa, Somaliland Protectorate. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadlet, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

Specimen Shells and books or papers relating to them bought, sold and 

John Q. Burch, 1584 West Vernon Ave., Loa Angeles 37, Calif. 

Translations of German, French and Spanish shell literature done in ex- 
change for shells, shell literature, duplicates or money. 

Morris K. Jacobson, 455 B. 139 St., Rockaway Beach, New York. 



EAST COAST MARINE SHELLS (Fourth revised edition) . . . 6.00 




All post-paid In U. S. A. 
Address author: 

Box 65, Windermere, Florida 


A large collection of South Sea and other shells including also fresh 
water shells, many of them from the W. D. Hartman collection, collected 
by Andrew Garrett, is offered for sale. 

It is fine material but not adaptable to Secondary School work, and oc- 
cupying space needed for local material. Address 

Prof. Fred Swan, Westtown School, Westtown, Penna. 


Volumes 35-60 
Compiled by Aurele La Rocque 

The index to The Nautilus for volumes 35 through 60 is now available 
for distribution. Copies may be procured from the University of 
Michigan Press, 311 Maynard Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The book 
is made up in the same format as the First Index, is cloth bound and 
divided into two sections, an author index and an index to genera and 

Pages: 322, frontispiece Price: $5.00 

Vol. 66 JANUARY, 1953 No. 3 





Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department, of MoUuBc a,. ■ 

Academy of Natural Sciences, PMladelt)|Uj^ j^p g BlOlOgJCal LabOratOfy 
H. BuRRiNGTON Baker, Prof essor of Zoology, L 1 13 li .1^ it "Y 

University of Pennsylvania 

FEB 6- 1^53 


Observations on a living specimen of Octopus%'iim'm\^i)ivA,'i 

Adam. By Gilbert L. Voss 73 

Murex hicolor Val. in Florida. By Margaret M. Teare .... 76 

Fastigiella carinata Reeve, a little-known moUusk. By 

H. A. Pilsbry 77 

Three new species of Philomycidae. By Leslie Hubricht 78 

Mollusks from an interglacial deposit in Meade Co., Kansas. 

B}^ Henry van der Schalie 80 

A study of Lamarck's types of Unionidae and Mutelidae. 

By Richard L. Johnson (concluded) 90 

The position of "Xesta" cincta (Lea). By Harald A. 

Rehder 95 

Some Sphaeriidae of Utah. By H. B. Herrington and E. J. 

Roscoe 97 

A Colombian Pomacea of the Effusa group. By H. A. Pils- 
bry and A. A. Olsson 98 

Ventridens in Staten Island, New York. By Morris K. 

Jacobson 99 

Disposing of duplicate shells. By Merrill Moore 102 

.00 per year ($3.15 to Foreign Countries) 75 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manager 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class matter, October 29, 1932, at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia, Pa., under the Act of March 3. 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of MoUusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbrt and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Maniiscript should he typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Eepbints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies $4.95 $7.89 $12.83 

100 copies 5.92 9.38 15.79 

Additional 100s 1.97 2.96 5.92 

Plates (pasted in) : $3.94 for 50 ; additional plates $2.97 per 100 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Margaret C. Teskey, Financial Secretary, 144 Harlem Avenue, Buffalo 
24, N. Y. 


Wanted : Back "Volumes and Numbers of The Nautilus. Especially, vol. 3 ; 
vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vols. 17 to 24; vol. 25, no. 
5; vols. 26, 27; vol. 52; vol. 53, nos. 2, 3; vols. 54 to 58; vol. 59, no. 
1; vol. 60, no. 2. Some nos. of volumes listed are in stock, but others 
are desired. Address Horace B. Baker, Univ. Penna. Zoo. Lab., 
Philadelphia 4. 

Wanted : Preserved or living viviparid snails, in exchange for local MoUusca. 

Glenn R. Webb, Ohio (P.O.), Illinois. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguus) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaea 
nemoralis, Otala species, and Helix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 


Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. New long list 
ready. Ask for it, and send yours. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago 5, Illinois. 

Wanted: Eecent and Tertiary MoUusca. Offered: Similar material from 
various countries. Apply with Ust. 

J. L. Staed, 123 rue Clovis, Eheims, Marne, France. 

Wanted: Marine shells, in exchange for identified marines, land and fresh 
water moUusks. 

Mes. H. B. Baker, 11 Chelten Eoad, Havertown, Pa. 

Foe Exchange: Bookbinding and book repair done — The Nautilus, 
Johnsonia, etc. — for duplicate shells or molluscan literature. 

Dr. Walter H. Jacobs, 124 West 93rd Street, New York 25, N. Y. 

Wanted: Pectens (world-wide). Exchange or purchase. Can offer good 
marine specimens, many genera, with data. 

Gilbert Grau, 2457 Claremont Ave., Hollywood 27, Calif. 

Foe Exchange : Sixty species of Cypraea, including rare local varieties, from 
Red Sea and Indian Ocean. 

Darrell Bates, Secretariat, Hargeisa, Somaliland Protectorate. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass, 

Specimen Shells and books or papers relating to them bought, sold and 

John Q, Buech, 1584 West Vernon Ave., Loa Angelfts 37, Calif. 

Translations of German, French and Spanish shell literature done in ex- 
change for shells, shell literature, duplicates or money. 

Morris K. Jacobson, 455 B. 139 St., Eockaway Beach, New York. 



EAST COAST MARINE SHELLS (Fourth revised edition) ... 6.00 



All post-paid in U. S. A. 

Address aatlior: 

Box 126, Windermere, Florida 


A large collection of South Sea and other shells including also fresh 
water shells, many of them from the W. D. Hartman collection, collected 
by Andrew Garrett, is offered for sale. 

It is fine material but not adaptable to Secondary School work, and oc- 
cupying space needed for local material. Address 

Prof. Fred Swan, Westtown School, Westtown, Penna. 


Volumes 35-60 
Compiled by Aurele La Rocque 

The index to The Nautilus for volumes 35 through 60 is now available 
for distribution. Copies may be procured from the University or 
Michigan Press, 311 Maynard Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The book 
is made up in the same format as the First Index, is cloth bound and 
divided into two sections, an author index and an index to genera and 

Pages: 322, frontispiece Price: $5.00 


Vol. 66 APRIL, 1953 No. 4 





Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of Mollusea, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phillll(JlJJUlSl 5 

H. Burrington Baker, Professor 

University of Pennsylvani; 

oi mm Biological Laboratonf 
nj tL' I B pt A. R -y 


JUNl 6 1953 

A new species of Pie uroh ranch us from the uaribbean (iec- 

tibranehiata) . By N. T. Mattox 109 

Land snails of the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. By 

Leslie Hubricht 114 

Co7igeria leucophaeata (Conrad) in the Hudson River. By 

Morris K. Jacohson 125 

Revised list of mollusks from York County, Pennsylvania. 

By Robert A. Heilman and Gordon K. MacMillan .... 128 

Fresh-water mussels used by Illinoian Indians of the Hope- 
well culture. By Max R. Matteson 130 

Imogene Strickler Robertson 139 

Notes and News • • 142 

Publications received 143 

LOO per year ($3.15 to Foreign Countries) 75 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manager 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, PhDadelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class matter, October 29, 1932, at the Post Office at 
Pbiladelpbia. Pa., under the Act of March 3. 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of Mollusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should be typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Eeprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. ^ PP- 16pp. 

50 copies $4.95 $7.89 $12.83 

100 copies 5.92 9.38 15.79 

Additional 100s _. 1.97 2.96 5.92 

Plates (pasted in) : $3.94 for 50 ; additional plates $2.97 per 100 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Margaret C. Teskey, Financial Secretary, 144 Harlem Avenue, Buffalo 

24, N. Y. 


Wanted : Back Volumes and Numbers of The Nautilus. Especially, vol. 3 ; 
vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vols. 17 to 24; vol. 25, no. 
5; vols. 26, 27; vol. 52; vol, 53, nos. 2, 3; vols. 54 to 58; vol. 59, no. 
1 ; vol. 60, no. 2. Some nos. of volumes listed are in stock, but others 
are desired. Address Horace B. Baker, Univ. Penna. Zoo. Lab., 
Philadelphia 4. 

Wanted : Preserved or living viviparid snails, in exchange for local MoUusea. 

Glenn E. Webb, Ohio (P.O.), Illinois. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguus) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaea 
nemoralis, Otala species, and Helix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 


Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. New long list 
ready. Ask for it, and send yours. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago 5, Illinois. 

For Exchange: Bookbinding and book repair done — The Nautilus, 
JoHNSONiA, etc. — for duplicate shells or moUuscan literature. 
Dr. Walter H. Jacobs, 124 West 93rd Street, New York 25, N. Y. 

Wanted: Pectens (world-wide). Exchange or purchase. Can offer good 
marine specimens, many genera, with data. 

Gilbert Grau, 2457 Claremont Ave., Hollywood 27, Calif, 

Foe Exchange : Sixty species of Cypraca, including rare local varieties, from 
Eed Sea and Indian Ocean. 

Darrell Bates, Secretariat, Hargeisa, Somaliland Protectorate. 

For Exchange: Fine specimen shells, world wide. 

Nick Katsaras, 479-B South Washington Ave., Bergenfield, N. J. 

Preparing new world-wide list of shell collectors. Send your name and 
interests. No obligation for registering. 

John Q. Burch, 1584 West Vernon Ave., Los Angeles 62, Calif. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

Specimen Shells and books or papers relating to them bought, sold and 

John Q. Burch, 1584 West Vernon Ave., Los Angeles 37, Calif. 

Translations of German, French and Spanish sheU literature done in ex- 
change for shells, shell literature, duplicates or money. 

Morris K. Jacobson, 455 B. 139 St., Eockaway Beach, New York. 



EAST COAST MARINE SHELLS (Fourth revised edition) . . . 6.00 



All post-paid In U. S. A. 
Address author: 

Box 126, Windermere, Florida 


A large collection of South Sea and other shells including also fresh 
water shells, many of them from the W. D. Hartman collection, collected 
by Andrew Garrett, is offered for sale. 

It is fine material but not adaptable to Secondary School work, and oc- 
cupying space needed for local material. Address 

Prof. Feed Swan, Westtown School, Westtown, Penna. 


Volumes 35-60 
Compiled by Aurele La Kocque 

The index to The Nautilus for volumes 35 through 60 is now available 
for distribution. Copies may be procured from the University of 
Michigan Press, 311 Maynard Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. The book 
is made up in the same format as the First Index, is cloth bound and 
divided into two sections, an author index and an index to genera and 

Pages: 322, frontispiece Price: $5.00 


lilH 17XG K